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带ed形容词与带ing 形容词的用法区别  

2012-06-26 15:05:56|  分类: 【英语语法】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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                                          带ed形容词与带ing 形容词的用法区别
 
1. 以后缀-ed结尾的形容词(如ashamed, delighted, excited, frightened, interested, moved, pleased, surprised, worried等)通常用于说明人,不用于说明事物,即使它们所修饰的名词是事物,那它们指的也是与该事物相关的人。如:
He had a pleased smile on his face. 他脸上露出了满意的微笑。

He told me the news in a very excited voice. 他告诉了我这个消息,声音很激动。
第一句中的a pleased smile 意为“满意的微笑”,它指的是某人因感到满意发出的微笑;第二句中的 excited voice 指的是“激动的声音”,即指的是带有这种声音的某人感到激动。
原则上,-ed 形容词通常直接用于说明人,若修饰事物,则多为 air(神态), appearance(外貌), cry(哭声), face(表情), voice(声音), mood(情绪)等与显示某人的情感状况的名词。
2. 以后缀-ing结尾的形容词(如delighting, exciting, frightening, interesting, moving, surprising, worrying 等)主要用于说明事物,表示事物的性质或特征,若用它们说明人,则表示此人具有此性质或特征。如:
The story is very interesting. 这个故事很有趣。
The man is very interesting. 这个人很有趣。
 


一、传统的观点许多参考书认为:-ing形容词与表示事物的名词连用,-ed形容词与表示人的名词连用。此说法在很多情况下是可行的,但表述欠准确,在许多情况下却是不可靠的。如-ing 形容词用于人的情况就比比皆是:假若你的老师说话幽默、讲课生动,那么不仅他的课非常interesting,而且你会说他是一个 interesting man(有趣的人)。

比较:
  I’m interested in interesting people. 我对有趣的人感兴趣。
  He was worried about his worrying son. 他为他令人担忧的儿子感到担忧。
  He was annoyed with the annoying person. 他对这个讨厌的人很生气。
  另一方面,-ed 形容词用于指物的情况也不少见。比较并体会:
  a frightened look 害怕的表情(指带有这种“表情”的人感到害怕)
  a frightening look 吓人的表情(指这种“表情”令人害怕)
  an excited talk 心情激动的谈话(指“谈话”的人心情激动)
  an exciting talk 令人激动的谈话(指听“谈话”的人心情激动)

由于传统的观点说得太绝对,有时做起题来还可能会因此掉入命题人的陷阱,请看下面一题:

   _____ do you think of your English teacher? Is he _______?

     A. What, interesting      B. What, interestedC. How, interesting          D. How, interested
此题考查两方面的知识点:一是考查what do you think of…与how do you like…的用法区别(两者搭配不同,但意思相同);二是考查interesting与interested的用法区别。若套用以上关于-ing形容词与-ed形容词的区别,则可能将答案锁定为D。但是错了,此题的最佳答案应是A。

二、正确的观点关于-ing形容词与-ed形容词的区别,比较准确的表述应该是:

1. 以后缀 –ed结尾的形容词(如ashamed, delighted, excited, frightened, interested, moved, pleased, surprised, worried等)通常用于说明人,不用于说明事物,即使它们所修饰的名词是事物,那它们指的也是与该事物相关的人。如:

He had a pleased smile on his face.

他脸上露出了满意的微笑。

He told me the news in a very excited voice.

他声音很激动地告诉了我这个消息。

第一句中的a pleased smile 意为“满意的微笑”,它指的是某人因感到满意发出的微笑;

第二句中的 a very excited voice 指的是“很激动的声音”,即指的是某人因很激动而发生那样的声音。

原则上,-ed 形容词通常直接用于说明人,若修饰事物,则多为 air(神态), appearance(外貌), cry(哭声), face(表情), voice(声音), mood(情绪)<'Times New Roman'">), mood(等显示某人的情感状况的名词。

2. 以后缀 -ing 结尾的形容词(如delighting, exciting, frightening, interesting, moving, surprising, worrying 等)主要用于说明事物,表示事物的性质或特征,若用它们说明人,则表示此人具有此性质或特征。如:

The story is very interesting. 这个故事很有趣。

The man is very interesting. 这个人很有趣。

请再比较并体会以下句子:

He is frightened. 他很害怕。

He is frightening. 他很吓人。

He has a frightened look on his face. 他脸上带有惊恐的神情。

He has a frightening look on his face. 他脸上带有吓人的神情。

I read an interested expression on his face. 我看到他脸上露出一种感兴趣的表情。
I read an interesting expression on his face. 我看到他脸上露出一种有趣的表情。 

三、学练结合请做做以下试题,看你是否能克服原来的思维定势,能否跳出命题人的陷阱:

1. Laws that punish parents for their little children’s actions against the laws get parents _____.
A. worried          B. to worried     C. worrying              D. worry
2. The little boy isn’t getting on well in maths and worse still, he is even unwilling to go to school. With her son _____, she feels very ______.
A. disappointing;worrying            B. disappointing;worried
C. disappointed;worried               D. disappointed;worrying
3. After the Anti-terrorist War, the American soldiers returned home,  ______.
A. safe but tired          B. safely but tired   C. safe and tiring   D. safely and tiring
4. As we all know, typing is a ______ job to a ______ heart.
A. tired; tired            B. tired; tiring   C. tiring; tired            D. tiring; tiring

5. Poor boy! His________ looks and ________hands suggested he was very afraid.A. frightful; trembling                  B. frightened; trembling    
C. frightening; trembled               D. frightened; trembly


答案与解析:

1. 选A。

句中的that punish…the law是定语从句。句意是:因为他们小孩的违法行为而惩罚其父母,这样的法律使得做父母的感到忧虑。表示人“感到忧虑的”用由过去分词转换而来的形容词。

2. 选B。

句意是:由于她的儿子令人失望,她感到非常烦恼。表示“令人……的”用 -ing 形容词;表示“感到……的”用 -ed形容词。

3. 选A。

此题一方面考查形容词作状语(。此题一方面考查形容词作状语(当形容词用作状语时,表示意义上的增补,和句子主语在逻辑上有主谓关系),另一方面考查形容词tiring与tired的用法区别,此处填tired表示“人感到疲惫的”,即选A。。

4. 选C。

第一空填tiring,表示“使人劳累的”;第二空填tired,表示“感到劳累的”。

5. 选B。

第一空填frightened,其意为“感到害怕的”;第二空填trembling表示动作的进行。也就是说,frightened说明主语因……而产生的情绪反应,从而影响到人的身体部位……trembling。 

 

                                          ed形式及常见短语与 ing形式形容词归纳
excited (be ~d about)   / exciting
surprised (be ~d at) //surprising
amazed (be ~d at)  //amazing
embarrassed(be ~ed in) //embarrassing
encouraged(be ~ed at / by)  / encouraging
frustrated (be ~d of)  / frustrating
interested (be ~ed in) / interesting
thrilled (be ~ed at) / thrilling
terrified (be terrified at/ of / with)  / terrifying
pleased (be ~d with)  / pleasing, = pleasant
satisfied(be satisfied with) / satisfying
frightened (be ~ed at / of )  / frightening
tired (be ~d of)  / tiring
bored (be ~d with)  / boring
relaxed (无固定搭配)  / relaxing
fascinated (be ~d by)  / fascinating
annoyed (be ~ed with)  / annoying
moved (be ~d by)  / moving
worried (be worried about)  /  worrying
confused (be confused about)  / confusing
 

 

练习:

一 用括号内所给动词的-ed形式或-ing形式填空

1. The children were ____after the trip. (tire)

2. The trip was____. (tire)

3. The ____children went to bed early after the trip. (tire)

4. The ____trip lasted a whole day. (tire)

5. The trip made the children____. (tire)

6. The bad weather made the trip____. (tire)

7. Tom’s parents are ____ at his ____ results of the exams.(disappoint)

8. ____and angry, he left the meeting-room. (disappoint)

9. It is ____that he didn’t pass the examination.(disappoint)

10. When hearing the____ news that Michael Jackson passed away, they were____to look at each other. (surprise)

11. He was ____ about his ____ son. (worry)

12. I'm not ____with his interpretation of this sentence. (satisfy)

13. He was ____with the ____person. (annoy)

14. A police car appeared on the road, the thief had a____ look on his face. (frighten)

15. The situation here is ____and we are____. (encourage)

答案:

1. tired   2. tiring  3. tired   4. tiring   5. tired   6. tiring   7. disappointed, disappointing)   8. Disappointed   9. disappointing

10. surprising; surprised   11. worried; worrying   12. satisfied  13. annoyed; annoying   14. frightened    

15. encouraging; encouraged

二   巩固练习:

1. The wet weather will continue tomorrow when a cold front ______to arrive.(2008·全国卷I)

A. is expected       B. is expecting              C. expects      D. will be expected

2. —Do you know if Terry will go camping this weekend? (2008·上海高考) 

—Terry? Never! He _____ tents and fresh air!

  A. has hated    B. hated     C. will hate     D. hates

3. By the time he realizes he ____ into a trap, it’ll be too late for him to do anything about it. (2008·山东高考)

   A. walks    B. walked   C. has walked   D. had walked

4. So far this year we ______ a fall in house prices by between 5 and 10 percent. (2008·福建高考)

   A. saw           B. see        C. had seen      D. have seen

5. Some of the people who ________ to the party can’t come now. (2008· 烟台模拟)

   A. had been invited   B. have been invited   C. are invited  D. invited

6. Laws that punish parents for their little children’s actions against the laws get parents _____.   A. worried          B. to worried     C. worrying           D. worry

7. The little boy isn’t getting on well in maths and worse still, he is even unwilling to go to school. With her son _____, she feels very ______.

A. disappointing; worrying            B. disappointing; worried

C. disappointed; worried               D. disappointed; worrying

8. After the Anti-terrorist War, the American soldiers returned home,  ______.

A. safe but tired          B. safely but tired   C. safe and tiring   D. safely and tiring

9. As we all know, typing is a ______ job to a ______ heart.

A. tired; tired           B. tired; tiring   C. tiring; tired            D. tiring; tiring

10. Poor boy! His________ looks and ________hands suggested he was very afraid.

A. frightful; trembling                 B. frightened; trembling    

C. frightening; trembled             D. frightened; trembly

11._____ do you think of your English teacher? Is he _______?

A. What, interesting        B. What, interested 

C. How, interesting            D. How, interested

答案:1-5 ADCDB  6-11ABACBA

 


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