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英语主谓一致重点知识归纳  

2012-07-21 10:01:14|  分类: 【英语语法】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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英语主谓一致重点知识归纳  

 

主谓一致的三个原则
 
1. 语法一致原则
该原则要求谓语动词必须与主语在语法形式上保持一致,即主语是单数形式,动词用单数形式,主语是复数形式,动词用复数形式:
Both my parents are doctors. 我的父母都是医生。
The living-room walls are a light yellow. 客厅的墙是淡黄色。
The two factories are in the same locality. 两家工厂都在同一个地区。
Her job is teaching French. 她的工作是教法语。
The location of the house is near the highway. 房子的地点靠近公路。
A large amount of damage was done in a short time. 短期内造成大量损害。
 
2. 意义一致原则
有时候谓语动词的数取决于主语所表示的概念,而不是其语法形式:
This news is important for us. 这条消息对我们很重要。
Paris is among the largest cities in the would. 巴黎是世界上最大的城市之一。
The thesis was about a hundred and fifty pages long. 论文有一百五十页长。
Watch out! The police are coming. 当心,警察来了。
Less people are going to university than usual. 现在上大学的人比平时少。
 
3. 就近原则
有时,谓语动词的数决定于主语中最靠近它的词语:
Either you or I am wrong. 不是你错了就是我错了。
Neither the students nor the teacher is interested in it. 老师和学生对此都不感兴趣。

 

集合名词做主语的主谓一致问题
 
1. 通常用作复数的集合名词
police(警察),people(人),cattle(牛,牲口)等集合名词,总是表示复数意义,用作主语时,其谓语要用复数:
The police were after him. 警察正在追捕他。
People are beginning to talk about her. 人们开始议论她。
Cattle feed on grass. 牛吃草。
【注】goods(货物), clothes(衣服)只有复数形式,且只表示复数意义:
Such clothes are very cheap. 那样的衣服很便宜。
All the goods have been sent to them. 所有的货物都给他们送去了。
 
2. 只用作单数的不可数集合名词
clothing(衣服),poetry(诗歌),baggage / luggage(行李), furniture(家具),machinery(机械),scenery(景色),jewellery(珠宝),equipment(设备)等集合名词通常只用作不可数名词,表示单数意义,用作主语时,其后谓语动词用单数形式:
Our clothing protects us from against the cold. 我们的衣服可以御寒。
All their baggage was stolen. 他们所有的行李都被偷了。
The furniture is convenient to move. 这家具搬起来很方便。
All the machinery in the factory is made in China. 这个工厂所有的机器都是中国产的。
 

 

 
3. 既可表示单数意义也可表示复数意义的集合名词
family(家庭),team(队,队员),class(班,班上的全体学生),crowd(人群),government(政府),crew(乘务员),committee(委员会),audience(听众),public(公众)等集合名词,当它们表示整体意义时,表单数意义,当它们强调个体意义时,表示复数意义:
Her family is a large one. 她的家庭是一个大家庭。
Her family are all tall. 她的一家人都很高。
The team is the best in the league. 这个队在联赛中打得最好。
The football team are having baths. 足球队队员们在洗澡。
It was late, but the audience was increasing. 时间很迟了,但听众人数却在增加。
The audience were all moved to tears. 听众都感动得流了泪。
【注】有时没有特定的语境,用单复数谓语均可以:
The audience was (were) very excited by the show. 观众对演出甚感激动。
The public has (have) a right to know what’s in the report. 公众有权知道这篇报告的内容。
 

 


并列结构作主语时谓语动词的数
 
1. 由and和both...and连接的并列主语
此时谓语动词通常用复数。如:
Jim and Mary are both interested in it. 吉姆和玛丽都对此感兴趣。
Both brother and sister are college students. 兄妹俩都是大学生。
【注意】
(1) 当由and连接的两个并列主语受each, every, no的修饰时,谓语用单数:
Every boy and (every) girl likes the book. 每个男孩女孩都喜欢这本书。
No desk and (no) chair was seen in the room. 房间里不见桌椅。
(2) 当and连接两个数相加时,谓语动词可用单数或复数:
Six and eight makes [make] fourteen. 六加八等于十四。
(3) 当and连接的两个的词语指同一个人或事物时,谓语通常要用单数:
A cart and horse was seen in the distance. 远处看见一辆马车。

2. 由or, nor, either...or, neither…nor, not only…but also, not…but等连接的并列主语
此时谓语动词通常与最靠近的主语保持一致(即遵循就近原则)。如:
He or I am wrong. 不是他错了,就是我错了。
Either you or he has taken it. 不是你拿了就是他拿了。
Not only the children but also the mother wants to go. 不仅孩子们想去,母亲也想去。
注意这类句型的疑问句形式:
Were you or he there? 当时是你还是他在那儿?
Are either you or he to blame? 是怪你还是怪他?
【注意】
在非正式文体中,个别结构(如neither…nor)连接主语时,谓语可用复数:
Neither his father nor his mother have [has] come. 他的爸爸和妈妈都没来。
 
3. 由as well as, as much as, rather than , more than, no less than 等连接的并连主语
此时谓语动词通常与前面一个主语保持一致。如:
The teacher as well as the students has read it 不仅学生读过它,老师也读过。
The teacher rather than the students is to blame. 应受责备的是老师而不是学生。

 

数量概念作主语时谓语动词的数
 
1. 表时间长度、钱数、速度等的词组作主语
此时通常将其视为整体,谓语用单数。如:
Twenty years is a long time. 20年是很长的时间。
Ten dollars is all I have left. 我只剩下10美元。
 
2. 分数(百分数)作主语
“分数(百分数)+of+名词”结构作主语时,谓语动词的数与其中名词的数保持一致。如:
About 30 percent of the pupils were absent that day. 那天大约有30%的学生未到。
Three-fourths of the surface of the earth is covered by sea. 地球表面的四分之三是海。
【注意】
在现代英语中,有时即使该结构中的名词为复数,其谓语也可用单数(即将其视为整体):
Over sixty per cent of families own [owns] a television. 百分之六十以上的家庭已拥有电视机。
 
3.“one in [out of]+复数名词”作主语
此时谓语动词通常用单数。如:
Only one in ten students has passed the examination. 只有十分之一的学生通过了考试。
One out of twelve bottles was broken. 每12个瓶子中有一个破了。
【注意】
在非正式文体中有时也用复数谓语。如:
Nationwide, one in five adults are illiterate. 就全国范围而言,五个成年人中有一个是文盲。
 
4.“all of (some of, none of, half of, most of, lots of, plenty of)+名词”作主语
此时谓语动词的数与其中名词的数保持一致。如:
Most of the people are against the plan. 大多数人反对这个计划。
Most of the Earth’s surface is covered by water. 地球的大部分地区被水覆盖。
Half of the apple is bad. 这个苹果有一半是坏的。
Half of the apples are bad. 这些苹果当中有一半是坏的。
 

 

 
5.“one and a half+复数名词”与“a+单数名词+and a half”作主语
此时国内不少书认为,这两个结构作主语,谓语均用单数。如:
One and a half months has passed. / A month and a half has passed. 已经过去了一个半月。
但是,国外一些词书则认为,谓语动词的数取决于这两个结构中名词的数:
One and a half months have passed. / A month and a half has passed. 已经过去了一个半月。
 
6.“the [a] number of+名词”作主语
该结构若用定冠词,其后谓语用单数;若用不定冠词,其后谓语用复数:
The number of students is 4000. 学生人数为4000。
A number of people were absent from the meeting. 许多人开会缺席。
注意类似结构:
The variety of goods in this shop is rich. 这家商店的品种丰富。
A variety of books have been published. 已出版了各种各样的书。
.


 


不定代词作主语时的主谓一致问题
 
1. someone, anyone等作主语时
someone, anyone, no one, everyone, something, nothing等复合不定代词作主语,谓语动词用单数:
Someone is asking to see you. 有人找你。
Nobody is to blame for it. 这谁也不怨。
No one wants to read such books. 没有人想看那样的书。
 
2. all 作主语时
若指人,谓语通常用复数;若指事物或现象,谓语通常用单数:
All have gone home. 大家都走了。
All that glitters is not gold. 发亮的不一定都是金子。
比较:
All is silent. 万籁俱寂。(指现象)
All are silent. 人人都沉默不语。(指具体的人)
【注意】
若是“all of+名词”作主语,则谓语动词与其中名词的数保持一致。
 
3. either和neither作主语时
若是单独作主语,谓语通常用单数:
Neither was satisfactory. 两个都不令人满意。
The two guests have arrived, and either is welcome. 两位客人都到了,哪一位都受欢迎。
【注意】
若是“either [neither] of+名词”作主语,则其后的谓语动词可用单数(正式文体)或复数(非正式文体):
Neither of the two computers is [are] cheap. 这两台电脑都不便宜。
Is [Are] either of the boys ready? 两个男孩都准备好了吗?
I don’t think either of them is [are] at home. 我想他们俩个都会不在家。
 

 

 
4. each作主语或修饰主语时
单独用作主语(或修饰主语),谓语用单数:
Each student has his own desk. 每个学生都有自己的课桌。
Two boys entered. Each was carrying a suitcase. 两个男孩进来,每人提着一只箱子。
【注意】
(1) 两个或多个“each+单数名词”结构并列作主语时, 谓语用单数。
(2) “each of+复数名词或代词”用作主语, 谓语一般要用单数
Each of them was deeply frightened. 他们个个都惊恐万分。
但是在非正式文体中(尤其是当 each of之后的名词较长时)偶尔也可用复数谓语,但很少见,学生宜慎用。
 
5. none (of) 作主语时
若指不可数名词,谓语用单数;若指复数可数名词,谓语可用单数(正式文体)或复数(非正式文体):
None of the money is mine. 这笔钱没有一点是我的。
None of the boys like [likes] it. 这些男孩子谁也不喜欢它。
 
6. 关于“one of+复数名词+定语从句”
在这一结构中,定语从句的谓语用复数取决于先行词是one还是其后的复数名词。一般说来,在这类结构中,复数名词通常被认为是先行词(即定语从句谓语用复数),除非one of前有the (only) 修饰(此时定语从句的谓语用单数):
He is one of the people who were killed in the accident. 他是事故中丧命的人之一。
He is the only one of the people who was killed in the accident. 他是事故中惟一丧命的人。

 

 

单复数同形的名词作主语
 
有的名词单数与复形同形,如means(方法), sheep(绵羊), fish(鱼), series(系列), works(工厂)等,当它们用作主语时,其谓语的数需根据这些名词的实际意义来确定(到底表示单数还是复数),此时要特别注意其修饰语和上下文语境。如:
Every possible means has been tried. 每种可能的办法都试过了。
All possible means have been tried. 所有可能的办法都试过了。
注:若没有特定的修饰语或语境,则用单数或复数谓语均可。如:
Are [Is] there any other means of doing it? 做这事还有其他的什么办法吗?
 

 

 

a (the) number of…作主语时谓语的数
 
一、“the number +复数名词”作主语,谓语用单数。如:
The number of the students increased to 500. 学生人数增加到了500人。
The number of students absent is 6. 缺席的学生人数为6。

The number of jobs is increasing. 工作的数目正在增加。
The number of chairs in the room is ten. 屋内椅子共有十把。
The number of the unemployed is still increasing. 失业的人还在增加。
The number of cars has greatly in creased. 轿车的数量大大地增加了。
The number of stamp-collectors is growing apace. 集邮者的人数在迅速增加。
And here are the main points of the news again. The pound has fallen against the dollar. The Prime Minister has said that the government’s economic policies are working. The number of unemployed has reached five million. There has been a fire... 下面把新闻要点再说一遍。英镑对美元的比价已经下跌。首相说政府的经济政策正在起作用。失业人数已经达到500万。发生了一场大火……
二、“a number of+复数名词”作主语,谓语用复数。如:
A number of people were injured. 不少人受了伤。
There were a number of swans on the lake. 湖上有好些天鹅。
There are a number of factors which we’re to consider. 有很多因素我们需要考虑。
A number of houses were burned down in the fire. 在火灾中烧掉了不少房子。
A large number ofpeople have come to see the exhibition. 许多人来看展览会。
A number of workers have recently left the company. 最近有很多工人辞掉了工作。
A number of veterans have retired and some are ready to. 很多老队员已退役,另一些也准备退役。
A number of people have tried to find the treasure, but they have all failed. 许多人都努力寻找宝藏,但是他们都失败了。
 


 

“the+形容词”作主语时的主谓一致
 
一、“the+形容词”作主语时,若指一类人,则谓语用复数。如:
The young are mostly ambitious. 年轻人多半有雄心。
The sick and the wounded were sent home. 伤病员都送回家了。
The rich get richer and the poor get poorer. 富者愈富,贫者愈贫。
The injured were carried away on stretchers. 用担架把受伤的人抬走了。
The old are more likely to catch cold than the young. 老年人比年轻人更容易感冒。
二、若指个别或抽象概念,谓语用单数。如:
The beautiful is not always the useful. 美的并不总是有用的。
The unknown is always something to be feared. 未知的东西总是一种令人害怕的东西。
The beautiful is not always the good, and the good is not always the true. 美未必是善,善未必是真。
注:有个别的“the+形容词”结构既表示单数意义,也表示复数意义,若用作主语,谓语动词用单数还是复数需视情况而定。如:the good 指“好人”时表复数意义,指“善”时表单数意义;the accused 指一名被告时表单数意义,指多名被告时表复数意义。比较:
The accused was acquitted of the charge. 被告被宣告无罪。(指一人)
The accused were acquitted of the charge. 被告均被宣告无罪。(指多人)
 


 

many a与more than one作主语时谓语的数
 
many a的意思是“许多”,more than one的意思是“不止一个”,从意义上,它们表示复数,但用作主语时,谓语却习惯上用单数。如:
■ many a
Many a fine man has died in that battle. 许多优秀的士兵死于那次战役。
Many a ship has been wrecked on those rocks. 许多船只毁于那些礁石之上。
Many a young man has tried and failed. 很多年轻人都试过,而且失败了。
Many a successful store has paid its rent cheerfully. 许多成功的店铺都非常乐意地付了房租。
■ more than one
More than one man has been dismissed. 不止一人被解雇了。
More than one person is involved in this. 与此事有牵连的人不止一个。
If things don’t get better, more than one person is going to have to find a new job. 如果情况没有好转,需要另谋新工作的就不是个别人了。
比较:
Many a boy likes swimming.=Many boys like swimming. 许多男孩子喜欢游泳。
More than one student has read the book.=More students than one have read the book. 不止一个学生读过这书。

 

 

时间、距离、金额作主语时的主谓一致
 
表示时间、距离、度量、重量、金额等的复数名词作主语,被看作整体时,谓语动词用单数;若强调个体也可以复数。如:
Twenty years is a long time. 二十年是很长时间。
Two kilometers is a long way to go on foot. 步行两千米是一段很长的路程。
Six months have passed, and we still have no news of them. 六个月过去了,我们依然没有他们的消息。
比较:
Ten dollars is too much for this old coin. 这个古币没有10块钱这么高的价格。
Three dollars were paid for the old coin. 那个古钱花了3块钱。
Twenty years is a long time. 20年是一段很长的时间。
Twenty years have passed since they got married. 他们结婚已有20年了。
 
 

 


百分数作主语谓语动词的数的问题
 
■将近百分之七十的资金由政府提供。
误:Nearly 70% of the fund were supplied by the Government.
正:Nearly 70% of the fund was supplied by the Government.

析:“数词+percent of+名词”作主语时,其谓语的数原则上与该结构中名词的数保持一致(这也是各级考试常遵循的原则),比较:
About 30 percent of the pupils were absent that day. 那天大约有30%的学生迟到。
注:在现代英语中,有时即使以上结构中的名词为复数, 其谓语也可用单数(即将其视为 整体),如:
Over sixty per cent of families own [owns] a television. 百分之六十以上的家庭已拥有电视机。
■现在大分部分教科书都有插图。
误:A large percentage of schoolbooks now has pictures.
正:A large percentage of schoolbooks now have pictures.
析:“a large (small) percentage of+名词”结构用作主语时, 其谓语的数原则上与该结构中名词的数保持一致。比较:
Only a small percentage of the money is mine. 这笔钱当中只有一少部分是我的。
注:若其中的名词为表示可数意义的集合名词,则其谓语根据情况可用单数(视为整体)或复数(考虑其个体),如:
What percentage of the population read(s) books? 识字的人占人口的百分之几?

 

 

 

非谓语动词作主语时的主谓一致
 
非谓语动词(主要指不定式或动名词)作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数。如:
1. 动名词作主语
Having to change trains is a small inconvenience. 换乘火车多少有些不便。
Being deaf and dumb makes communication very difficult. 又聋又哑很难与人交往。
Watching the event on television was a poor substitute for actually being there. 从电视上观看那个比赛比现场观看可差远了。
Reading by artificial light is bad for the eyes. 阅读时使用人工照明会损害眼睛。
Writing a dictionary is a long and difficult business but we’re getting there. 编写词典是费时费事的工作, 但我们一定能成功。
Writing a book was a more difficult job than he’d thought. 写书这工作可比他原来想像的难得多。
2. 不定式作主语
To say you were ignorant of the rules is no excuse. 说自己不知道规则是不能成为藉口的。
How to earn daily bread by my pen was then the problem. 如何靠我的笔维持生计在当时是一难题。
To have such an easy examination paper was a gift from the gods. 碰到这样容易的考卷, 那是老天爷的恩赐。
To say you were ignorant of the rules is no excuse. 说自己不知道规则是不能成为藉口的。
To say that he was displeased is an understatement. 说他不高兴是重事轻说。
To move house requires forward planning. 要搬家得先做好计划。
To have told my secret would have given me away. 要是讲出了我的秘密就是把我自己出卖了。


 

 

从句作主语时的主谓一致
 
从句(即主语从句)作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数。如:
Whoever told you that was lying. 不管这话是谁对你说的,都是撒谎。
Whichever climber gets to the top first will get a £5,000 prize. 不管是谁首先爬到山顶都将获得5000英镑的奖金。
Whether he has signed the contract or not doesn’t matter. 他是否在合同上签了字,是无关紧要的。
What he chiefly wished for was a chance to explain. 他主要希望能有一个解释的机会。
注:当主语从句后接的表语时复数时,有时也可用复数谓语。如:
What she needs is (are) friends. 她需要的是朋友。

 

“主语+介词短语”作主语时的主谓一致
 
按英语习惯,介词短语通常不用作主语,所以当主语后跟有一个介词短语时,其后谓语动词的数只与介词短语前面的主语保持一致,而与介词短语无关。如:
A woman with two children has come. 一位妇女带着两个孩子已经来了。
Everybody but you knows what was happening. 除了你以外,人人都知道出了什么事。
The teacher, together with some of his pupils, was cleaning the room. 教师和他的一些学生一起在打扫教室。
以下两例中的 as well as 也可视为介词,其后谓语与 as well as 前面的主语保持一致:
The students as well as the teacher were present at the meeting. 学生和他们的老师出席了会议。
I as well as they am ready to help you. 不仅他们愿意帮助你,我也愿意帮助你。

 

 

不定代词作主语的主语一致归纳
 
1. 单数型:someone, anyone, no one, everyone, something, nothing等复合不定代词作主语,谓语用单数;either, neither, each, little, much 等不定代词作主语时,谓语也用单数。如:
Nothing is yet certain. 一切都还没有肯定。
Neither was satisfactory. 两者都不使人满意。
No one goes to the school during the vacation. 假期时没人到学校去。
2. both, few, several, many作主语:此时谓语要用复数。如:
Few of them are any good. 它们没有几个有用。
Many have given their lives in the cause of truth. 为了真理许多人献出了生命。
3. all 作主语:若指人,谓语用复数;若指事物或现象,谓语通常用单数。如:
All are equal before the law. 法律面前,人人平等。
All is well that ends well. 结局好一切都好。
注:若all 后修饰有其他名词或接有“of+名词”,则其谓语与其中名词的数保持一致。
All (of) the money is mine. 所有这些钱都是我的。
All (of) his friends are poor. 他所有的朋友都很穷。
4. none (of) 作主语:若指不可数名词,谓语用单数;若指复数可数名词,谓语可用单数(较正式)或复数(非正式)。如:
None of the rooms are ready. 房间一个也没准备好。
None of this milk can be used. 这牛奶一点都不能用了。
None of the telephones is [are] working. 没有一部电话中是好的。
5. the rest 作主语:指不可数名词时谓语用单数,指可数名词时谓语用复数。如:
The rest of the money is yours. 剩余的钱归你。
The rest are arriving later. 其他人稍候就到。

 

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