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初中英语语法讲解与练习:介词  

2012-06-16 15:59:10|  分类: 【英语语法】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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初中英语语法讲解与练习:介词  


 

介词又叫前置词,是一种虚词。介词是一种用来表示词与词,或者词与句之间的关系的词,在句中不能单独作句子成分。介词一定要有宾语,充当宾语的一般有名词、代词或相当于名词的其它词、短语或句子。介词一般可以分为三种,一种是简单介词,如at, in, on, beside, to , for等;另一种是短语介词,即由两个以上的词组组成的短语,如in front of, because of, out of, instead of等;还有一种叫二重介词,如until after, from behind等。

(一)介词的句法功能

介词不能独立在句中做成份,介词后必须与名词、代词、或动名词构成介词短语在句中充当一个成份,表示人、物、事件等与其它人、物、事件等之间的关系。

1、作定语:The book on the table is mine.

2、作状语:We have breakfast at seven.(表时间);They were late for meeting because of the heavy rain.(表原因);They started the machine by pressing the button.(表方法)

3、作表语:My dictionary is in the bag.

4、作宾语补足语:I found him in the office.

(二)主要介词区别

1、表示时间的at, in, on:at表示片刻的时间,如:at 8 o’clock ,常用词组有:at noon, at night, at midnight, at the end of, at that time, at the beginning of, at the age of, at Christmas, at New Year等。in表示一段的时间,如:in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening, in October, in 1998, in summer, in the past, in the future等。on总是跟日子有关,on Monday, on Christmas morning, on the following, on May Day, on a warm morning等。

2、表示时间的since和from:since表示从过去到现在的一段时间的过程,常与现在完成时连用。from表示从时间的某一点开始,不涉及与现在的关系。一般多与现在时、过去时、将来时连用。如:I hope to do morning exercises from today./ We have not seen each other since 1995.

3、表示时间的in和after:两者都表示“在(某个时间)之后,区别在于in表示“在(一段时间)之后”,而after则表示“在(某一具体时间点之后)”,in短语和将来时态连用,after短语和过去时态或将来时态连用。如:We’ll be back in three days./ After seven the rain began to fall./ What shall we do after graduation?

注意:after有时也可以表示在一段时间之后(常用在过去时里)。如:After two months he returned.

4、表示地理位置的in, on, to:in表示在某范围内,on指与什么毗邻,to指在某环境范围之外。如:Changchun is in the northeast of China./ Mongolia is on the north of China./ Japan is to the east of China.

5、表示“在……上”的on和in:on只表示在某物的表面上,而用in表示占去某物一部分。 如:There is a book on the piece of paper./ There is an interesting article in the newspaper./ He dug a hole in the wall.

6、表示“穿过……”的through和across:through表示从内部通过,与in 有关;across则表示从一端至另一端在表面上的通过,与on有关。如: Water flows through the pipe./ The old man walked across the street.

7、in the corner, on the corner, at the corner:in the corner 表示在角落里,in指角的内面;on the corner表示“在角上”,on指的不是内面,也不是外面,而含内外兼有之意;at the corner指“在拐角处”,at指的是拐角外附近的外面。如:The lamp stands in the corner of the room./ I met with him at the street corner./ He sat on the corner of the table.

8、in the end, at the end of, by the end of:in the end作“最后”、“终于”解,可单独使用,后不接介词of;at the end of 表示“在……末梢”,“到……尽头”,既可指时间,也可以指地上或物体。不可单独使用;by the end of 作“在……结束时”,“到……末为止”解,只能指时间。不可单独使用。如:In the end they reached a place of safety./ At the end of the road stands a beautiful garden./ They decided to have an English evening at the end of this week./ by the end of last month he had finished the novel.

9、表示“关于”的about 和on:两者都有“关于”的意思,不过前者为一般用词,而后者为较正式的“论述”。如:He came to tell me about something important./ He wrote a book on science.

10、between, among:一般说来,between表示两者之间,among用于三者或三者以上的中间。如:You are to sit between your father and me./ He is always happy among his classmates.

注意:但有时说的虽然是三个以上的人或东西,如果强调的是两两相互间接关系,适用于between。如:Agreements were made between the different countries. 在谈到一些事物或一组事物,而把它们视为分居两边时用between。如:The little valley lies between high mountains.。在谈事物间的差别时,总是用between。如:They don’t know the difference between wheat, oats and barley.

11、besides, except, but, except for:besides指“除了……还有,再加上”。如:All went out besides me.;except指“除了,减去什么”,不能放在句首。如:All went out except me.;but 与except意思近似,表示“除了……外”经常用在no, all, nobody, anywhere, everything等和其他疑问词后面。如:I never saw him reading anything but the newspaper.;except for表示“如无……就,只是”表明理由细节。如:His diary is good except for a few spelling mistakes.。

12、表示“用”的in和with:表示工具的“用”,用with,而表示材料、方式、方法、度量、单位、语言、声音等的“用”,用in。如:He is writing a letter with a pen./ He wrote the letter in pencil./ We measured it in pounds./ Read the text in a loud voice./ Tell me the story in English.

13、in charge of和in the charge of:两者都表示“由谁负责、照顾、管理”。区别在于:in charge of后接被照管的人或物,而in the charge of后面则跟照管的人。如:Who is in charge of the project?/ The project is in the charge of an engineer.。

14、as, like:as作“作为”、“以……地位或身份”解。如:Let me speak to you as a father.(事实是父亲);like作“象……一样”解。如:Let me speak to you like a father.(事实上不是父亲)。

15、in front of 和in the front of:in front of = before,是“在……前面”的意思(不在某物内); in the front of则是“在……前部”的意思(在某物内)。如:There is a desk in front of the blackboard./ The boy sat in the front of the car.。

16、in, into:into表示动向,不表示目的地或位置。如:We walked into the park.;in通常表示位置。如:We walked in the park;in和drop, fall, put, throw, break等终止性动词连用时,也可以表示动向。如:I have put the coin in (into) my pocket.我把硬币放进衣袋。

 

介词

I. 介词分类:


1

简单介词

about, across, after, against, among, around, at, below, beyond, during, in, on

2

合成介词

inside, into, onto, out of, outside, throughout, upon, within, without

3

短语介词

according to, because of, instead of, up to, due to, owing to, thanks to

4

双重介词

from among, from behind, from under, till after, in between

5

分词转化成的介词

considering(就而论), including

6

形容词转化成的介词

like, unlike, near, next, opposite


 

 

 

II. 常用介词区别:


1

表示时间的in, on, at

at表示片刻的时间,in表示一段的时间,on总是与日子有关

2

表示时间的since, from

since 指从过去到现在的一段时间,和完成时连用,from指从时间的某一点开始

3

表示时间的in, after

in指在一段时间之后,after表示某一具体时间点之后或用在过去时的一段时间中

4

表示地理位置的in, on, to

in表示在某范围内,on指与什么毗邻,to指在某环境范围之外

5

表示“在…上”的on, in

on只表示在某物的表面上,in表示占去某物一部分

6

表示“穿过”的through, across

through表示从内部通过,与in有关,across表示在表面上通过,与on有关

7

表示“关于”的about, on

about指涉及到,on指专门论述

8

between与among的区别

between表示在两者之间,among用于三者或三者以上的中间

9

besides与except的区别

besides指“除了…还有再加上”,except指“除了,减去什么”,不放在句首

10

表示“用”的in, with

with表示具体的工具,in表示材料,方式,方法,度量,单位,语言,声音

11

as与like的区别

as意为“作为,以…地位或身份”,like为“象…一样”,指情形相似

12

in与into区别

in通常表示位置(静态),into表示动向,不表示目的地或位置


 

介词训练

介词的考点主要有:同一介词可表达多种意义,同一场合意义不同则介词不同;常见介词的用法;介词的固定搭配;复合介词及双重介词的使用。使用点有:

1. He kept his head _____ water when he began to learn swimming, but he raised his head now and then

   A. over             B. below           C. above            D. up

2. Another grand bridge will be built _____ the Pearl River in our city.

    A. along           B. up               C. on              D. across

3. I'll leave Beijing for Guangzhou ____ a week, while my brother will leave Guangzhou for Beijing ____ our National Day.

A. in, in               B. after, in        C. after, after     D. in, after

4. The huge picture looks more beautiful _____ the blue sky.

A. against             B. to               C. over             D. under

5. The climate here doesn't agree _____ her.

A. to                  B. on               C. with             D. at

6. 2. Standard time in Beijing is eight hours ____ Greenwich Mean Time(GMT格林威治标准时间).

A. after                B. front            C. ahead of         D. forward

7. --- Can you tell me what’s your aim in life, Li Ping?

--- I am aiming ____ a famous physicist.

    A. at               B. for              C. in               D. to

8. "Pass ____ the bus, everyone." the conductor shouted politely.

    A. on               B. into             C. to               D. along

9. I was angry _____ missing the gongfu film with Cheng Long as hero.

A. at                   B. with            C. for              D. on

10. We were anxious _____ news of your safe arrival.

A. to               B. of              C. for                  D. at

 

11. Tom was arguing _____ the payment of the bill_____ John.

A. about; on       B. over; with      C. on; on             D. with; with

12. They were astonished _____ the news of his escape from prison.

A. for              B. in               C. at                   D. to

13. He was absorbed ____ a book and didn’t hear your repeated call.

A. to               B. in               C. with                D. at

14. --- Are you familiar with the bank over there?

--- Only a little, I have an account ____ it.

A. in                   B. with                 C. to          D. of

15. The doctor bent _____ the boy and checked his wound.

A. up              B. on                  C. above            D. over

16. Mary answered all the questions _____ the last one, which she had never heard of before.   A. besides      B. except      C. apart from      D. except for

17. Hunan lies _____ such provinces as Hubei, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guizhou and Chongqin.   A. among     B. above           C. beside       D. between

18. The dying man is _____ the help of the doctor.

A. outside              B. without          C. out of       D. beyond

19. I don’t know why he blamed the accident _____ me.

A. at                   B. to               C. for          D. on

20. The horse is blind _____ the left eye.

A. to                   B. in               C. for         D. on

21. He is very strict with others, but he is always blind _____ his own shortcomings.

A. for                  B. to               C. with         D. in

22. We will never forget this historical lesson written _____ blood.

A. by                   B. with             C. of           D. in

23. It is said that a bridge is being built _____ the river.

A. under                B. to               C. over         D. at

24. --- How did you go to work yesterday?

    --- I went to work _____ my friend’s private car.

A. by              B. in               C. on               D. at

25. The train leaves at 6:00 p.m., so I have to be at the station ____ 5:40 p.m. at the least.

A. until                B. after                C. by              D. around

26. I called _____ you last night, but you were out.

A. with     B. on       C. at       D. in

27. You should write the first letter of the sentence _____ capital one.

A. on               B. with             C. in               D. at

28. He is too careful _____ his money; he never buys a drink for us.

A. to           B. at       C. for      D. with

29. Can you say _____ certain when he will come here?

A. at               B. for              C. with             D. in

30. More than 20 years ago he was badly wounded in the anti-Vietnam war. Since then he can only walk _____ an arm-chair .

A. in           B. on               C. by       D. over

31. Einstein didn’t care for money. Once he used a check _____ $1000 as a bookmark and then he lost it.

A. for              B. of           C. about                D. to

32. When the Chinese delegation arrived at Vienna airport, they were received _____ cheers.    A. in                B. for              C. on           D. with

33. The little boy is very clever _____ every subject.

A. at           B. in           C. about        D. on

34. Her clothes are very bright _____ colour.   A. of   B. in   C. on    D. with

35. Don’t sit _____the corner of the desk. That’s impolite for a student.

A. on           B. in               C. to               D. at

36. It is said that the step-mother is very cruel _____ the children.

A. with             B. at               C. about                D. to

37. The boy is curious _____ everything. I am sure he is very clever.

A. to               B. about                C. with             D. in

38. She is crazy _____ the film star, while her brother is crazy _____ surfing.

A. to; for              B. on; to               C. for; at      D. for; on

39. Once everyone is _____ his life, he will instinctively(本能) find every possible way _____.

 A. in danger of; out of danger             B. in the danger of; out of danger

 C. in danger of; out of the danger         D. in the danger of; out of the danger

40. Let’s put our heads together and decide _____ a plan of action.

 A. on              B. about                C. for              D. at

41. During her study in Massachusetts Institute of Technology she has got the degree _____ PhD, and it is a degree ______ chemistry.

 A. of; at      B. in; at               C. of; in               D. in; of

42. In China children, even in their twenties depended _____ their parents _____ food and clothing.

 A. upon; on            B. on; in           C. on; for              D. at; to

43. Our national scenery Zhangjiajie is so charming that it is _____ description.

 A. out                 B. beside               C. over             D. beyond

44. _____ the _____ of modern industry, the pollution is becoming more and more serious.

A. With; developing                     B. Under; development

C. With; development                    D. Under; developing

45. The twins look much like each other, but they are different _____ nature.

 A. in                  B. about                C. on               D. with

46. _____ his disadvantage, it began to rain heavily suddenly.

A. At               B. With             C. To               D. For

47. She was disappointed _____ hearing the news that Chinese football team lost the first match in “World Cup”.

A. at                   B. in                   C. of               D. with

48. Some new changes happened _____ the school _____ my absence.

A. at; to               B. in; for              C. in; during       D. at; on

49. He goes _____ at 8 a.m. and comes _____ at 5 p.m. Today he is _____.

A. on duty; off duty; on night duty     B. on his duty; off the duty; on night duty

C. to duty; from duty; at night duty    D. in duty; out duty; at night duty

 

 

50. The Englishman has a very good ear _____ music. You can ask him for some advice.

A. at                   B. of               C. for              D. in

51. Don’t put your cell (手机) _____ the edge of the table, or it will fall off

A. at                   B. on               C. to                   D. in

52. The struggle against sand storm will not end _____ victory unless we pay much attention to the balance of nature.

A. at                   B. in                   C. for              D. with

53. Our music teacher often enjoyed _____ playing the violin in his spare time.

A. him by               B. himself by           C. him in       D. himself with

 

54. The football fans cheered their team _____ the entrance _____ the field.

A. at; on               B. in; at               C. at; to       D. on; at

55. All the students envied him _____ having succeeded in the TOFEL test.

A. as                   B. for              C. in                   D. with

56. In the college entrance examination, one of my students did very well _____ poor handwriting.

A. except       B. except for           C. except that          D. but for

57. I am sure you will excuse me _____ not telling you ahead of time.

A. from             B. for              C. since                D. at

58. It is said that a collection of paintings by David is _____ exhibition at the Museum.      A. on            B. at       C. for                  D. in

59. During the whole TV interview, the middle-school girl student never once looked me _____ .

A. in face              B. on the face          C. in the face    D. to the face

60. Officially the Frenchman is in charge, but __________ his secretary does all the work.

A. in need      B. in fact      C. for fact      D. for this reason

61. --- I am not _____ this city. Would you please introduce it to me?

--- With pleasure.

A. familiar to  B. familiar in      C. familiar for     D. familiar with

62. This area is famous _____ its apples and it is famous _____ the home of apple.

A. with; for        B. for; as              C. for; as              D. as; to

63. The plan for a new airport have been scrapped __________ an extension to the old one.

A. in favour    B. out of favour        C. in favour of        D. favourite

64. They hurried away _____ fear that should be caught in rain.

A. in                   B. for              C. at               D. on

65. Two dogs ______ a bone, and a third runs away with it.

A. fight back           B. fight with      C. fight against    D. fight for

66. When the good news that our football team won the championship, the hall was at once _______ great joy.

A. filled of            B. full with      C. filled with        D. fill with

67. The Prime Minister was more fit __________ his office than anyone else.

A. for              B. to                   C. with            D. of

 

68. When the boy playing by the river fell into the river, I was out of the room _______.

A. in flash    B. in a flash          C. as a flash          D. for a flash

69. With the guide leading the way, the visitors were able to travel through the forest not by air but _____ foot.

A. by                   B. on               C. in                   D. with

70. I know it is difficult __________ him to talk like the lecturer, but I think he should grasp every chance .

A. of                   B. for              C. with            D. over

71. People eat a lot of sugar __________ cakes, soft drinks, sweets and so on every day.

A. in form of           B. in the shape of      C. shaped by    D. at form of

72. We couldn’t read the notice on the board because several people were standing _______ it.

A. in front of    B. in the front of    C. at the back of       D. in back of

73. It is not right _____ a person who is _____ trouble.

A. to make fun of; at                   B. to make fun of; in  

C. to be made fun of; in                D. to be made fun of; with

74. We went _____ our plan carefully before we carried it out.

A. through              B. off              C. out              D. with

75. Taiji boxing is good _____ health, so the old man began to practise it ten years ago and now he is good _____ it.

A. for; to          B. to; for              C. for; at              D. at; for

76. He cut the apple ________, and gave the big to his little sister.

A. into half      B. into halves       C. in halves            D. in the half

77. Oh, sorry. A lighted cigarette burned a hole _____ my coat, and I have to change another one.

A. in                   B. on               C. at                   D. by

78. The form is very important. Please fill in the form _______ ink not _____ a pencil, Jack

A. in; by               B. with; in            C. in; with        D. by; in

79. I wrote to Mr. Green, _______ him _______ the lost case.

A. inform…of      B. informing…of     C. informed…about      D. inform…for

80. Last week, we had a meeting. I told the chairman that I couldn’t attend it for I had something important to do, but he insisted _____ my being present.

A. on              B. in                C. to                   D. at

81. In order to finish the work in time,they always worked far______ the night.

A. in               B. onto                 C. at               D. into

82. When we heard the news that our team has won more than 30 gold medals Athena Olympic Games, we sang and danced _____ joy.

A. to                   B. with             C. at                   D. of

83. It is said that Hong Kong will be joined _____ the mainland _____ a beautiful bridge on the sea in the near future.

A. by; with         B. with; by         C. by; to               D. to; by

84. Can't you keep your dog _______coming into my yard? It is always disturbing us.

A. off                  B. into             C. out              D. from

85. You should say "I am sorry " when you knock ________ somebody.

A. at                   B. in                   C. to               D. into

86. In the following spring , the seeds should be knocked _______ the seed-heads and sown .

A. out of               B. into             C. over            D. at

87. --- Could you please tell me how can I get to the post office?

--- Go straight ahead. At the end of this road, you’ll see the hospital       the left side of the park.

A. in              B. above            C. on              D. around

88. All the people in China, poor or rich, young or old, man or woman, are on the same level _____ each other.

A. to                   B. with             C. at                   D. for

89. Was this piece of earthenware(陶器) made       machine or _____ hand?

A. by; by               B. with; by         C. with; with           D. by; with

90. --- Who is that gentleman who talked to you just now?

   --- He is my uncle _____ marriage.

A. at                   B. to                   C. by               D. with

 

91. They are going to erect(树立) a monument _____ memory of the men who offered their lives in defense of their country.

A. on               B. for              C. to               D. in

92. It was good ______ you to invite me to join in the party.

A. for                 B. in           C. to               D. of

93. The diligent student refused the help of others and insisted on working out the difficult maths problem _____.

A. on his own       B. in his own       C. of his own           D. for his own

94. If you don’t believe me, you’d better go to have a look at it _____ person.

A. in                   B. on               C. at                   D. with

95. The scooter(滑板车) has been popular _______ a lot of children since the year before last.

A. by              B. for              C. in                   D. with

96. It is reported that the thirty-ninth president of America Jimmy Carter has won the Nobel Prize _____ peace in the year of 2002.

A. in                   B. on               C. at                   D. for

97. When he was in America, he made a journey of seven hundred miles _____ purpose to get a glimpse of the Niagara Falls.
A. on                   B. by               C. with             D. for
98. We have friends ____ the world.

A. through      B. in from      C. throughout   D. all over in

99. If you study harder, you will catch        the others in the class. 

A. up      B. up with     C. up of      D. to

100. The visitors _______ the castle are asked not to take photographs.

A. of      B. to      C. in      D. into

 

介词训练答案

1—5CDDAC   6—10CADAC  11—15BCBBD 16—20BDDDB 21—25BDCBC

26—30BCDBA 31—35ADABA 36—40DBDAA 41—45CCDCA 46—50CACAC

51—55ABBCB 56—60BBACB 61—65DCCBD 66—70CABBB 71—75AABAC

76—80BACBA 81—85DBDDD 86—90ACAAC 91—95DDAAD 96—100DACBB



 

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