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there be结构的分析与理解  

2012-07-21 09:42:30|  分类: 【英语语法】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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                                                                 there be结构的分析与理解
 
■there be结构在英语里是一种常见的特殊句子结构。它以引词there(由副词there变来)开首,后常接动词be的各种形式,再后才是主语,主语之后又常有表地点和时间的状语。它像是一种倒装句,但又非倒装句,因为这种“倒装”已成为一种自然的词序。这种结构中的there本身无词义,其后的动词be具有“存在”之意,所以是一实义动词。
■基本用例:
There is a garden behind the house. 房子后面有一座花园。
There is nothing but clothing in this cupboard. 这个柜子里只有衣服。
There is a telephone box on the comer. 在拐弯处有一个电话间。
If there is any problem, let me know. 如果有什么问题可以通知我。
There is only one person I could approach. 只有一个人我可以去找。
There is little difference between the two words. 这两个字没有什么差别。
注意下面一句:
There was a dog there. 那里有一条狗。
There is a bus-stop just there. 那里就有公共汽车站。
句中第一个there是引词,无词义;第二个there是副词,有词义。
■there be结构表“存在”,have表“所有”,试比较:
There are several oak trees in the garden. 花园里有好几株橡树。(主语是oak trees)
They have several oak trees in the garden. 他们在花园里种有好几株橡树。(主语是they)
There’s a telephone in every room. 每一个房间都有一部电话。(强调客观存在)
Every room has a telephone. 每一个房间有电话。(强调电话是每个房间的一固有部分)
■句首的there如重读,则非引词,而是副词,试比较:
There is the book 1 want. 那儿就是我所要的书。(there是副词,有词义)
There are some books 1 want. 有一些我所要的书。(there是引词,无词义)
■在there be结构中,be之后加上not或no, 即变成否定句,如:
There is no great difficulty. 没有大的困难。
There is no need to worry. 没有必要发愁。
There is not much doubt about his guilt. 对他的罪行没有多少怀疑。
There is not much life in a small country village. 一座小村庄没有多少生气。
■变为疑问句时,须把be移至there之前,如:
Are there any children in the room? 房间里有小孩吗?
Are there any boys in your group?  你们小组中有男生吗?
Is there anything for me to do? 有什么事需要我做?
Is there a doctor available? 能请到医生吗?
■there be结构中的动词be与主语的数必须一致,但主语如是一系列事物,第一个事物为单形可数名词,谓语动词则可用单数形式,如:
There is a textbook, a dictionary and some notebooks on the desk. 桌上有一本教科书、一本字典和几本笔记。
有时说话人先说出了there is(was),然后才想到要用复形名词,如:
There’s some things I can’t resist. 有些事物我是不抗拒的。
There’s hundreds of people on the waiting list. 登记排队的人有好几百。
■强调主语时,亦可将主语移至句首,如:
Men there are yet living who have seen him. 见过他的人有的还活着哩。
 

 

 

有关there be结构的九个惯用句型
 
1. There is no doing 结构。其意为“不可能…”、“无法…”:
There’s no denying the fact. 这一事实不容否认。

There is no getting over the difficulty. 这困难无法克服。
There is no knowing what he will do next. 无法知道他下一步要干什么。
There was no telling when she would be back。没法知道她什么时候回来。
 
2. There is no difficulty in doing sth结构。意为“做某事没有困难”:
There is no difficulty in finding his office. 找到了他的办公室没费一点劲。
There was no difficulty in carrying out the plan. 执行这项计划没什么困难。
 
3. There’s no doubt… 结构。意为“毫无疑问…”:
There is no doubt of his success. 毫无疑问他一定会成功。
There could be no doubt that he was one of the best writer in this country. 毫无疑问他是这个国家最优秀的作家之一。
 
4. There is no hurry (to do sth) 句式。其意为“不用急(于做某事)”:
There’s no hurry to return the book. 现在不急于还书。
There’s no hurry, so do it slowly and carefully. 不用赶时间,要慢慢细心地做。
 
5.There’s no need for…结构。其意为“不需要或不必要…”:
There is no need for help. 不需要帮助。
There is no need for you to go. 你没有必要去。
 
6. There is no question about...结构。其意为“…是毫无疑问的”:
There’s no question about his success. 毫无疑问他会成功。
There’s no question about his honesty. 毫无疑问他是诚实的。
 
7. There is no question of doing sth 句式。其意为“做某事是不可能的”:
There is no question of his coming. 他不可能会来。
There is no question of our arriving on time. 我们不可能准时赶到。
 

 

 
8. There is no sense in doing sth 结构。意为“做某事没有道理或好处”:
There’s no sense in criticizing him. 批评他也没有用。
There’s no sense in waiting three hours. 等三小时是不没有道理的。
 
9. There’s no point in doing sth 句式。意为“做某事没有用”:
There’s no point (in) telling her about is. 告诉她没有用。
There’s no point in wasting time. 耗时间没用。
【注】以上有的结构中的no根据情况也可换成其他限定词:
There is some difficulty in doing sth意为“做某事有些困难”。
There is much difficulty in doing sth意为“做某事许多困难”。
There’s a need for…意为“需要或有必要…”。
 


 there be句式的主谓一致问题
 
:若只有一个主语,谓语的数则取决于该主语的数;若有几个主语并列,则通常是与靠近的主语保持一致。如:
There is a man at the door. 门口有个人。
There are some girls in the room. 房间里有几个女孩。
There is a pen and some books on the desk. 桌上有一支钢笔和一些书。
但有时说话人先说出了there is(was),然后才想到要用复形名词,此时则会出现there is后接复数主语的情况。如:
There’s some things I can’t resist. 有些事物我是不抗拒的。
There’s hundreds of people on the waiting list. 登记排队的人有好几百。

there be句式时态问题
 
there be句式的时态由其中的谓语动词be来体现,它可以有等多种时态形式:
■一般现在时
There is still room for improvement. 还有改进余地。
There is nothing to be done now. 现在没有办法了。
There is (some) milk in the fridge. 冰箱里有一些牛奶。
If there is any problem, let me know. 如果有什么问题可以通知我。
■一般将来时
There’s going to be trouble. 要出事了。
There will be rain next week. 下星期要下雨。
There will be bloodshed tonight. 今晚会发生流血事件。
There is going to be [will be] an English film tonight. 今晚将有一场英语电影。
There will follow an interval of five minutes. 接着将有五分钟的休息时间。
There will be a perfectly logical explanation for all those deaths. 对所有那些死因都将会有一个完全合乎逻辑的解释。
■一般过去时
There was a lot to be done. 有很多事要做。
There wasn’t any change in him. 他没有什么变化。
There was a third reason for haste. 匆忙行事还有第三个理由。
There was nothing to fear from that quarter. 那方面没有什么可怕的。
There were some children swimming in the river. 有些小孩在河里游泳。
There were lots of complaints about the boys, but none about the smoke. 对这些男孩有许多抱怨,但没有关于抽烟的抱怨。
■现在完成时
There have been a lot of inquiries. 提出的询问有很多。
There have been a lot of enquiries. 进行过许多调查。
There have been many such accidents. 已发生了好几起那样的事故。
There have been several break-ins this year. 今年发生了好几起强行入室盗窃事件。
There has been an increase in the number of road incidents recently. 最近交通事故的数目有增加。
There have a lot of bad luck lately. 最近发生了一些变化。
There has been little business between the two companies. 这两家公司之间几乎没有什么业务往来。
■过去完成时
There had been many such occasions. 曾有许多这种情况。
There had been two sea fights between them. 他们之间发生了两场海战。
There had been two sea fights between them. 他们之间发生了两场海战。
■过去将来时
There would be endless rows if I was at home. 如果我在家会有吵不完的架。
Then there would be a plebiscite. 那么就会举行公民投票。
Tom didn’t say that there would be a demonstration. 汤姆没说要举行示威游行。
There would never again be a love such as she had felt for Alex. 永远也不人再有她对爱丽克斯所拥有的那种爱了。

there be与情态动词连用
 
there be句式有时可以与情态动词连用。
■与 can / could 连用

There can be no doubt about that. 那是毫无疑问的。
Without heavy industry there can be no economic advance. 没有重工业,就没有经济的发展。
If the police hadn’t closed the road there could have been a bad accident. 要不是警方关闭了道路,本来会发生严重车祸的。
■与may / might 连用
There might still be hope. 可能还有希望。
There may be a letter for me. 大概有我一封信。
There may be a storm tomorrow. 明天可能有风暴。
At the end there may be an index. 结尾处可能有索引。
There might be drinks if you wait for a bit. 如果你等一会儿,可能会有饮料。
There may be more importance in it than would seem. 它的重要意义可能要比看上去大。
■与must 连用
There must be a mistake. 一定是弄错了。
He felt there must be something wrong. 他感到准有什么问题。
There must be somebody at home—ring again. 家里肯定有人——再按一下铃。
There must be some book which could help. 一定有那么本书可以帮我们的忙。
That can’t be the only way. There must be other ways of solving the problem. 那不是解决问题的唯一办法,肯定有另外的办法。
■与 should 连用
There shouldn’t be any doubt about it. 对此不应有什么怀疑。
It is important that there should be afire escape. 要有一个太平梯,这很重要。
The widow begged that there should be no reprisals. 遗孀祈求不要去搞复仇。
■与 ought to 连用
There ought to be a comma here. 这儿应有一个逗号。
There shouldn’t be any doubt about it. 对此不应有什么怀疑。
There ought to be traffic lights at this crossroads. 这个十字路口应该有红绿灯。
There ought to be enough of a fire left up there. 上面那儿残留的火势该够大了。
There oughtn’t to have been any difficulty about it 此事本不应有什么困难。
■与 used to 连用
There used to be a small park just around the corner. 以前在那个拐角就有一个小公园。
There are more flowers than there used to he. 现在比过去花儿更多了。
There used to be a cinema here, didn’t there? 过去这儿是有一家电影院的,是吗?
There used to be a hospital here. 原来这里有家医院。
There used to be four cinemas in the town, now there is only one. 过去这座城市有四家电影院。现在只有一家了。

■there+情态词+be…
There could be no doubt about it. 对此不会有丝毫疑问。
There won’t be an election in June 6月份将不进行选举。
There must be a mistake. 一定是弄错了。
■there+情态词+have been…
There can’t have been any doubt about it. 对此不会有过任何疑问。
There might have been a strike. 可能有过一场罢工。
There oughtn’t to have been any difficulty about it 此事本不应有什么困难。
■there+情态词+be+补足语+现在分词
There can’t be anyone waiting outside. 不会有人在外面等候。
There never used to be anyone living next door 过去隔壁从未住过人。
There could be something blocking the pipe 管子里可能给什么东西堵上了。
■there+情态词+have been+补足语+现在分词
There might have been someone waiting outside. 可能曾有人在外面等候。
There must have been something blocking the pipe 管子肯定曾被什么东西堵住了。
There could have been someone crossing the road. 可能曾有人横穿马路。
 

 

there be句式中动词be的变体
 
有时可将there be中的动词be 换为 live, remain, seem, appear, exist, stand, lie, come等:
Once upon a time there lived a man known by the name of Joe Beef. 从前有个人名叫乔·比夫。
There seems [appears] something the matter with her. 她好像是出了什么事似的。
There existed different opinions on this problem. 对这个问题曾有不同看法。
There remained just twenty-eight pounds. 只剩28英镑了。
At the top of the hill there stands an old temple. 在小山顶上有一座古庙。
 


谈谈“there be+名词+非谓语动词”
 
1. there be+宾语+现在分词:现在分词表示主动关系,同时表示动作正在进行:
There is someone waiting for him. 有人在等他。
There was a man standing in front of me. 我前面站着一个男人。
There were some children swimming in the river. 有些小孩在河里游泳。
There were a group of young people working in the fields. 有一群青年在地里劳动。
有时现在分词可表示一种状态:
There’s a piano standing against the wall. 靠墙有一架钢琴。
There’re a lot of difficulties facing us. 我们面前有很多困难。
There is a door leading to the garden. 有一座门通往花园。
有个别现在分词用于该结构时可以表示将来(正如它们可用进行时表示将来一样):
There are ten people coming to dinner. 有10个人来吃晚饭。
 
2. there be+宾语+过去分词:过去分词表示一种被动关系,同时表示动作已经发生:
There is nothing written on it. 上面没写东西。
There were ten people killed in the accident. 事故中有10人丧生。
有时过去分词也可表示一种状态(可转换成被动结构):
There were some old men seated (=who were seated) in the back. 有些老人坐在后面。
There is a red car parked (=which is parked) outside the house. 房子外边停着一辆红色汽车。
 

 

 
3. there be+宾语+不定式:不定式通常表示动作尚未发生:
There was nobody to look after the child. 没有人照顾这孩子。
There was a large crowd to send him off. 有一大群人要来给他送行。
There was so much to lose that we couldn’t take any risks. 可能会有很大的损失,因此我们不能冒险。
【注】当其中的宾语与其后的不定式为被动关系时,可用主动表被动,也可用被动式:
There is much work to do [to be done]. 有许多工作要做。
有时其中的不定式为系表结构:
There is nothing to be afraid of. 没什么可怕的。
What was there to be afraid of. 有什么可怕的?
There’s nothing to be ashamed of. 没有什么值得羞愧的。

 

 

there be…的否定式和疑问式
 
■there be句式否定式的用法
there be句式的否定式通常应将否定词置于动词be之后:
There is not any bread left. 没有一点面包了。
There isn’t anything I can do for you. 我帮不了你什么忙。
若谓语中包括有助动词或情态动词,通常将否定词置于助动词与情态动词之后:
There can’t be so many mistakes. 不可能有那么多错误。
There shouldn’t be any doubt about it. 对此不应有什么怀疑。
There haven’t been any parties in weeks. 好几个礼拜没开过晚会了。
另外注意以下类型的否定式:
There doesn’t seem to have been any difficulty over the money question. 在钱的问题上似乎没发生什么困难。
■there be句式疑问式的用法
there be句式的疑问式通常应将否定词置于动词be之后:
Is there any good film on? 映什么好电影吗?
Is there room for me in the car? 车子里还有我坐的地方吗?
Are there any letters for me? 有我的信吗?
若谓语中包括有助动词或情态动词,通常将助动词或情态动词移至句首构成疑问式:
Has there been an accident? 出事了吗?
Have there been any new developments? 有什么新的发展吗?
Can there have been so much rain there?那儿会下过那么多雨吗?
另外注意以下类型的疑问式:
Uncle Jesse, why do there have to be poor people like those? 杰西叔,为什么一定要有他们那样的穷人?

 

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