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初中英语语法讲解练习:名词  

2012-06-16 15:54:45|  分类: 【英语语法】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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初中英语语法讲解练习:名词  

 

I. 名词的种类:

专有名词

普通名词

国名地名人名,团体机构名称

可数名词

不可数名词

个体名词

集体名词

抽象名词

物质名词

II. 名词的数:

1. 规则名词的复数形式:

名词的复数形式,一般在单数形式后面加-s或-es。现将构成方法与读音规则列表如下:

规则

例词

1

一般情况在词尾加-s

map-maps, sea-seas, girl-girls, day-days

2

以s, x, ch, sh结尾的名词后加-es

class-classes, box-boxes, watch-watches, dish-dishes

3

以-f或-fe结尾的词

变-f和-fe为v再加-es

leaf-leaves, thief-thieves, knife-knives, loaf-loaves, wife-wives

加-s

belief-beliefs, chief-chiefs, proof-proofs, roof-roofs, gulf-gulfs

4

以辅音字母加y结尾的名词,变y为i加-es

party-parties, family-families, story-stories, city-cities

5

以元音字母加y结尾的名词,或专有名词以y结尾的,加-s

toy-toys, boy-boys, day-days, ray-rays, Henry-Henrys

6

以辅音字母加-o结尾的名词

一般加-es

hero-heroes, Negro-Negroes, potato-potatoes, tomato-tomatoes

不少外来词加-s

piano-pianos, photo-photos, auto-autos, kilo-kilos, solo-solos

两者皆可

zero-zeros/zeroes, volcano-volcanoes/ volcanos

7

以元音字母加-o结尾的名词加-s

radio-radios, bamboo-bamboos, zoo-zoos

8

以-th结尾的名词加-s

truth-truths, mouth-mouths, month-months, path-paths,

2. 不规则名词复数:

英语里有些名词的复数形式是不规则的,现归纳如下:

规则

例词

1

改变名词中的元音字母或其他形式

man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, goose-geese, mouse-mice

2

单复数相同

sheep, deer, series, means, works, fish, species li, yuan, jin,

3

只有复数形式

ashes, trousers, clothes, thanks, goods, glasses, compasses, contents

4

一些集体名词总是用作复数

people, police, cattle, staff

5

部分集体名词既可以作单数(整体)也可以作复数(成员)

audience, class, family, crowd, couple, group, committee, government, population, crew, team, public, enemy, party

6

复数形式表示特别含义

customs(海关), forces(军队), times(时代), spirits(情绪), drinks(饮料), sands(沙滩), papers(文件报纸), manners(礼貌), looks(外表), brains(头脑智力), greens(青菜), ruins(废墟)

7

表示“某国人”

加-s

Americans, Australians, Germans, Greeks, Swedes, Europeans

单复数同形

Swiss, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese

以-man或-woman结尾的改为-men,-women

Englishmen, Frenchwomen

8

合成名词

将主体名词变为复数

sons-in-law, lookers-on, passers-by, story-tellers, boy friends

无主体名词时将最后一部分变为复数

grown-ups, housewives, stopwatches

将两部分变为复数

women singers, men servants

III. 名词的所有格:

名词在句中表示所有关系的语法形式叫做名词所有格。所有格分两种:一是名词词尾加’s构成,二是由介词of加名词构成。前者多表示有生命的东西,后者多表示无生命的东西。

1. ’s所有格的构成:

单数名词在末尾加’s

the boy’s father, Jack’s book, her son-in-law’s photo,

复数名词

一般在末尾加’

the teachers’ room, the twins’ mother,

不规则复数名词后加’s

the children’s toys, women’s rights,

以s结尾的人名所有格加’s或者’

Dickens’ novels, Charles’s job, the Smiths’ house

表示各自的所有关系时,各名词末尾均须加’s

Japan’s and America’s problems, Jane’s and Mary’s bikes

表示共有的所有关系时在最后一词末加’s

Japan and America’s problems, Jane and Mary’s father

表示"某人家""店铺",所有格后名词省略

the doctor’s, the barber’s, the tailor’s, my uncle’s

2. ’s所有格的用法:

表示时间

today’s newspaper, five weeks’ holiday

2

表示自然现象

the earth’s atmosphere, the tree’s branches

3

表示国家城市等地方的名词

the country’s plan, the world’s population, China’s industry

4

表示工作群体

the ship’s crew, majority’s view, the team’s victory

5

表示度量衡及价值

a mile’s journey, five dollars’ worth of apples

6

与人类活动有特殊关系的名词

the life’s time, the play’s plot

7

某些固定词组

a bird’s eye view, a stone’s throw, at one’s wit’s end(不知所措)

3. of所有格的用法:

用于无生命的东西:the legs of the chair, the cover of the book

用于有生命的东西,尤其是有较长定语时:the classrooms of the first-year students

用于名词化的词:the struggle of the oppressed

注:不同国籍人的单复数 
国籍 总称(谓语用复数) 单数 复数
中国人 the Chinese, a Chinese, two Chinese       瑞士人 the Swiss, a Swiss, two Swiss
澳大利亚人the Australians, an Australian, two Australians 俄国人 the Russians, a Russian, two Russians
意大利人 the Italians, an Italian, two Italians       希腊人 the Greek, a Greek, two Greeks
法国人 the French, a Frenchman, two Frenchmen   日本人 the Japanese, a Japanese, two Japanese
美国人 the Americans, an American, two Americans 印度人 the Indians, an Indian, two Indians
加拿大人 the Canadians, a Canadian, two Canadians 德国人 the Germans, a German, two Germans
英国人 the English, an Englishman, two Englishmen 瑞典人 the Swedish, a Swede, two Swedes

 

名词练习

1. The ____ of the room were covered with ____.

       A. roofs, leafs               B. roofs, leaves             C. rooves, leafs             D. rooves, leaves

2. There are three ____ in our factory.

       A. woman doctors         B. women doctors         C. woman doctor          D. women doctor

3. Which do you prefer ____ or ____?

       A. potatos, tomatos              B. potatos, tomatoes      C. potatoes, tomatos      D. potatoes, tomatoes

4. They are ____ of different presses(出版社). Now they are having a meeting in one of the ____ office.

       A. editor-in-chiefs, editors-in-chief’s                  B. editors-in-chief, editor-in-chief’s

       C. editors-in-chiefs, editor’s-in-chief’s               D. editors-in-chief, editors-in-chief’s

5. The ant has two ____.             A. stomaches         B. stomacks           C. stomach            D. stomachs

6. He doesn’t like ____ for supper.                     A. chick         B. chicken      C. chickens    D. chicks

7. It was ____ hot weather that many of us went swimming.    A. so  B. such      C. so as   D. such a

8. ____ wonderful space they saw on the room!  A. How   B. How a C. What        D. What a

9. We know ____ travels not so fast as light.      A. sound B. sounds     C. the sounds  D. a sound

10. My family raise a lot of ____, including two ____.

       A. cattle, cows                     B. cows, cattle                     C. cattles, cows            D. cow, cattles

11. A number of soldiers ____ at he camp gate(军营门口).

       A. have gathered           B. has gathered             C. is                             D. was

12. The Browns have spent a large ____ of money on their new car.

       A. deal                         B. amount                     C. number                    D. size

13. ____ work has been done to improve the people’s living standard.

       A. Many                       B. A great many            C. A great deal of          D. A number of

14. Mr Li shook ____ warmly with a friend.

       A. hand                        B. a hand                      C. hands                       D. the hands

15. Two ____, please.   A. coffee        B. coffees              C. cup of coffee            D. cups coffee

16. I can’t pay as ____ as he asked for.

       A. high price a                     B. high price                 C. a high price                     D. high a price

17. ____ knowledge of space develops rapidly.    A. Man’s        B. Men’s   C. Mens’    D. Person’s

18.I stayed at ____.              A. Xiao Wang’s     B. Wang’s home    C. the Wangs    D. home of Wang

19. Sister Carrie works in a ____ factory.           A. shoes         B. shoses        C. shoe     D. shoe’s

20. Have you ever read ____?

       A. today newspaper              B. newspaper today              C. newspaper of today   D. today’s newspaper

21. Two ____ walk didn’t made me tired.    A. hour          B. hours         C. hour’s        D. hours’

22. The mother over there is ____ mother.

       A. Julia and Mary          B. Julia and Mary’s        C. Julia’s and Mary’s     D. Julia’s and Mary

23. Li Ming’s handwriting is better than ____ in the class.

       A. anyone’s                  B. anyone else               C. anyone’s else’s         D. anyone else’s

24. The children are playing ____ on the ____.

       A. sand, sand                B. sands, sands             C. sand, sands                     D. sands, sand

25. If these trousers are too big, buy a smaller ____.          A. set      B. one     C. copy   D. pair

26. Tom usually takes a ____ in bus on rainy days.            A. walk   B. ride     C. trip     D. travel

27. We have no ____ about where she has gone.

       A. information               B. news                        C. message                   D. flash

28. Food and ____ are daily necessities(需要)for the people.

       A. cloth                        B. clothe                       C. clothes                            D. clothing

29. My ____ of hearing is not so good as it used to be.             A. strength  B. sense  C. power D. skill

30. The ____ caused by carelessness ____ yesterday. Many workers were killed.

       A. incident, was happened                                 B. matter, happened             

C. event, was taken place                                  D. accident, took place

31. The room was so quiet that she could hear the ____ of her heart.

       A. beating                     B. ways                        C. knocking                  D. striking

32. ____ has been told not to throw waste things anywhere.

       A. The public                B. People                      C. Women                    D. Man

33. He was an ____ in the government ____.

       A. office, official           B. official, office           C. officer, office           D. official, officer

34. There are several ____ in this novel who are different in ____.

       A. character, character  B. characters, characters       C. character, characters D. characters, character

35. We visited him ____ when he was in hospital.

       A. every other days              B. each other day          C. every other day         D. every two day

36. My friend will return in ____.

       A. one day or two         B. a day or two             C. one day or two         D. a or two days

37. ____ is always difficult for me. A. Translation      B. Translate    C. The translation   D. A translation

38. ____ of this novel is excellent, quite to my surprise.

       A. Translation               B. Translate                  C. The translation          D. A translation

39. The police ____ looking into the matter now.        A. be       B. is        C. are      D. are going to

40. The Chinese are ____ brave and hard working people.  A. the     B. a         C. /         D. one

41. No news ____ good news.                   A. is               B. are             C. have          D. has

42. Maths still ____ very difficult for me, though I have done my best. A. looks      B. seems C. is D. are

43. “Where ____ my trousers?” the boy asked.          A. is        B. was           C. were     D. are

44. How happy they are! Obviously, they are ____.

       A. in nice spirits            B. in nice spirit              C. in high spirits            D. in high spirit

45. I saw many ____ seated in the corner reading something.

       A. Japanese                  B. Japaneses                 C. of Japanese                     D. of Japaneses

46. Father went to his doctor for ____ about his heart trouble.

       A. an advice                  B. advice                      C. advices                    D. the advices

47. We are ____ and they are ____.                                

A. Englishmen, Germans  B. Englishmen, German  C. Englishmans, Germans       D. Englishmen, Germen

48. ____ are made of ____.

       A. A glass, a glass         B. Glasses, glass           C. The glass, the glass   D. Glasses, glasses

49. I’ll have to buy ____ trousers.               A. a        B. two     C. a pair of     D. a couple of

50. There are two ____ in our class.           A. Liu            B. Lius           C. Liu’s          D. Lius’

51. ____ is needed in cold countries.

       A. A lot of clothes         B. Much clothing           C. Many a cloth            D. Lots of clothes

52. They are ____.               A. mathematics student                B. mathematic students

                                          C. students in mathematics           D. mathematics students

53. The laboratory assistant recorded the ____ reactions(反应).

       A. mouses’                   B. mice                        C. mices’                            D. mice’s

54. This letter was sent by ____.

A. my father friend        B. my father friend’s     C. a friend of my father’s      D. a friend of my father

55. Ten years had passed. I found she had ____.

A. a little white hair B. some white hair         C. a few white hair        D. a few white hairs

56. I have made ____ with Billy.          A. friends              B. friend         C. a friend             D. the friend

57. The population of Beijing is ____ than that of Xi’an.     A. more   B. larger  C. fewer  D. small

58. There are thirty-two ____ in our school.

       A. woman teacher         B. women teacher         C. women teachers        D. woman teachers

59. He had tried everything but it made little______ . A. use    B. good C. difference  D. result
60. You must get there within half an hour. There should be no______ in sending the blood to the dying man.
  A. wait                      B. delay                     C. time                      D. hurry
61. Enough of it! Nobody here thinks what you are saying should make any______ .
  A. excuse                   B. sense                     C. use                       D. value
62. -How dare you play on such thin ice?            -Playing on ice is not my ______of spare time.
  A. idea                       B. thought                 C. mind                     D. intention
63. Helen said she would like to go to Atlanta by air, but I wonder if she has enough money to pay for the_____ .
  A. travel                    B. tourism                 C. journey                 D. course
64. One splendid mountain______ followed another during our journey from Mieheel more to Rurunz.
  A. view                     B. glance                   C. screen                   D. scene
65.The new law will come into ___on the day it is passed. (1999上海)

  A. effect                  B. use                     C. service               D. existence

66. When you play' football, what ______do you play? A. situation       B. place   C. part    D. position
67. It's important for us to employ a word or a phrase according to the______in language studies.
  A. situation                B. expression             C. condition               D. translation
68. I wrote him a letter to show my ______of his thoughtfulness.
  A. achievement          B. agreement             C. view                      D. appreciation
69. One of the advantages of living on the top floor of a high-rise is that you can get a good______ .
  A. sight                     B. scene                     C. view                     D. look
70. Nowadays natural gas, wind and other forms of ______are widely used in the country.
  A. energy                  B. force                    C. power                   D. materials
71. ______with foreign countries can bring us much information about the world.
  A. Contrast                B. Competition           C. Contact                 D. Combination
72. We all know that______speak louder than words.

       A. movements           B. performances        C. operations              D. actions

73.We have worked out the plan and now we must put it into ___.(NMET1997 38)
  A. fact                    B. reality                 C. practice              D. deed
74.We've missed the last bus. I'm afraid we have no ____but to take a taxi.(Met 1993 ,33)
  A. way                   B. choice                 C. possibility           D. selection
75.He dropped the ___and broke it . (Met 1993, 38)
  A. cup of coffee      B. coffee's cup        C. cup for coffee     D. coffee cup
76.Here's my card. Let's keep in ____. (NMET1994 ,33)
  A. touch                        B. relation                C. connection          D. friendship
77.He gained his ___by printing ___of famous writers.(NMET1995,40)
  A. wealth; work                B. wealths ; works     C. wealths; work       D. wealth; works
78.I'll look into the matter as soon as possible , just have a little ___.(MET 1996 ,10)
  A. wait                   B. time                   C. patience                   D. rest
79.If by any chance someone comes to see me, ask them to leave a ____.(NMET1997,18)
  A. message             B. letter                  C. sentence             D. notice
80.These football players had no strict ___until they joined our club. (1997.上海 20)
  A. practice              B. education            C. exercise              D. training
81.Many countries are increasing their use of natural gas, wind and other forms of ___.(1996.上海.15)
  A. energy                B. source                C. power                D. material
82.You'll find this map of great __in helping you to get round London.(NMET 1998 21)
  A. price                  B. cost                   C. value                  D. usefulness
83.We all know that ___speak louder than words.(1999.上海 24)
  A. movements           B. performances        C. operations           D. actions

84.My parents always let me have my own ____of living. (1999.上海25)
  A. way                   B. method                C. manner               D. fashion

festival、holiday、vacation的区别:

festival“节日”,指喜庆的日子或持续一段时间的文娱活动;

holiday(假日、休息日),指法定假日或风俗习惯,复数可以表示一个较长的假期;

vacation“假期”,指学习或工作中一段长时间的休息。

如:The Shanghai Television Festival will be held next month.上海电视节将在下个月举行

Sunday is a holidayand most people do not work.星期天是个假日,多数人不工作

What are you going to do during the summer vacation/holidays?在暑期你打算做什么事情?

fish的问题:指许多条鱼且不管种类时,用fish,可数名词且单复数相同;fishes 指许多种类的鱼;fish指“鱼肉”时是不可数名词。如:There are many fish/kinds of fishes in the pool. (池子里有很多鱼/种类的鱼)/ I prefer fish to meat.(与肉相比我更喜欢鱼) 

名词答案:

1~5 BBDDD  6~10 BBCAA 11~15 ABCCB 16~20 DAACD 21~25 DBDCD 26~30 BADBD 

31~35 AABDC 36~40 BACCB 41~45 ABDCA 46~50 BABCB 51~55 BDDCD 56~60 ABCCB

61~65 BACAA  66~70 DADCA  71~75 CDCBD  76~80 ADCAD  81~84 ACDA



 

 

 

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