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中考英语专项复习3 代词  

2012-06-12 15:03:10|  分类: 【教学资料】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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中考英语专项复习3 代词

 

 

代词是代替名词、形容词和数词的词。按其意义、特征及其在句中的作用分为:人称代词、物主代词、指示代词、反身代词、相互代词、疑问代词、不定代词和关系代词等。

一. 人称代词

 1.人称代词的人称、数和格,如下表所示。

 2.人称代词有主格和宾格之分。通常主格作主语,宾格作宾语。如:

   I like table tennis. (作主语)Do you know him?(作宾语)

3.人称代词还可作表语。作表语时用宾格。如:---Whos is knocking at the door?---It’s me.

 

4.人称代词在than之后与其他人或事物进行比较时,用主格和宾格都可以。如:He is older than me.He is older than I am.

二. 物主代词

 1.表示所有关系的代词叫物主代词。物主代词分形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词。

 2. 形容词性物主代词的作用相当于形容词,可在句中作定语。例如:

   Our teacher is coming to see us.   This is her pencil-box.

 3. 名词性物主代词的作用相当于名词,在句中可用作主语、宾语和表语。

   Our school is here, and theirs is there.(作主语)

  --- Is this English-book yours? (作表语)  --- No. Mine is in my bag.

  I've already finished my homework. Have you finished yours? (作宾语)

三. 指示代词

   指示代词包括:this,that,these,those。

1. this和these一般用来指在时间或空间上较近的事物或人,that和those

则指时间和空间上较远的事物或人,例如:  This is a pen and that is a pencil.

  We are busy these days.  In those days the workers had a hard time.

2. 有时that和those指前面讲到过的事物,this 和these则是指下面将要讲

到的事物,例如:I had a cold. That's why I didn't come.

What I want to say is this ; pronunciation is very important in learning English.

3. 有时为了避免重复提到的名词,常可用that或those代替,例如:Television sets made in Beijing are just as good as those made in Shanghai.

4. this 在电话用语中代表自己,that 则代表对方。例如:Hello! This is Mary. Is that Jack speaking?

四. 反身代词

  英语中用来表示"我自己","你自己","他自己","我们自己","你们自己"等意义的代词称为反身代词,也有人称之为自身代名词,其形式如表所示。

   反身代词可以在句中作宾语,表语,同位语。

  1. 作宾语,表示动作的承受者就是动作的发出者,主语和宾语指同一个人

或一些人。He called himself a writer.  Would you please express yourself in English? 

2. 作表语。 It doesn't matter.I'll be myself soon. The girl in the news is myself.

  3. 作主语或宾语的同位语,表示亲自或本人。

     I myself washed the clothes.(=I washed the clothes myself.)(作主语同位语)

     You should ask the teacher himself.(作宾语同位语)

五. 不定代词

   不是指明代替任何特定名词的代词叫做不定代词,在句中可作主语、表语、宾语和定语。现将几个常用的不定代词举例说明如下:

1. some与any的区别

1)some多用于肯定句,表示“一些,几个”作形容词时,后面可以接①不可数名词+单数动词;②可数名词+复数动词。

     Look! Some of the students are cleaning the library.

    . Some rice in the bag has been sold out.

2)any多用于疑问句、条件句和否定句中,表示“一些,任何”用作形容词时,后面可以接①不可数名词+单数动词;②可数名词+复数动词。

     If you have any questions, please ask me.

     There isn't any orange in the bottle.

     Have you got any tea?

3)any和some也可以作代词用,表示“一些”。any多用于疑问句或否定句中,some多用于肯定句中。How many people can you see in the picture?     I can't see any.

If you have no money, I'll lend you some.

   注意:与some, any结合的词如something, somebody, someone, anything, anyone, anybody在肯定句、否定句、疑问句、条件句中的用法,大致和some, any的用法相同。

2. few, a few, little, a little在用法上的区别

1)用作形容词:

a few虽少,但有几个 few不多,几乎没有

a little,虽少,但有一点 little不多,没有什么

   I'm going to buy a few apples.

  He can speak only a little Chinese.

  There is only a little milk in the glass.

  He has few friends.

  They had little money with them.

  2)a little和little也可以用作副词,a little表示“有点,稍微”,little表示“很少”。

  I'm a little hungry. (修饰形容词hungry)  Let him sleep a little. (修饰动词sleep)

  Mary, go a little faster, please. (修饰副词比较级)  She slept very little last night.

3. other, the other, another, others, the others的区别。

1)other可以作形容词用,后面可以跟单数或复数名词,意思是“其他的、别的”。

  Where are his other books?  I haven't any other books except this one.

2)other也可以用作代词,与冠词the连用构成“the other”,表示两个人或物中的“另一个”。常与one搭配构成“one ..., the other ...”句型。He has two brothers. One is 10 years old , the other is 5 years old.  She held a ruler in one hand and an exercise-book in the other.

3)other作代词用时,可以有复数“others”,泛指“另外的人或物”。常与some搭配构成“some ...., others ...”句型。

  Some went to the cinema, others went swimming.

  This coat is too large. Show me some others, please.

4)“the others”表示特指某范围内的“其他的人或物”。

  We got home by 4 o'clock, but the others didn't get back until 8 o'clock.

  In our class only Tom is English, the others are Chinese.

5)another可以作形容词用,修饰后面的名词,意为“另一个”,还可以跟代词one.

  You can see another ship in the sea, can't you?

  Mary doesn't want to buy this skirt. Would you please show her another one?

6)another也可以作代词用,表示“另一个”。I'm still hungry after I've had this cake. Please give me another.

4. every与each的区别:

1). each可作代词和形容词,而every只能用作形容词,如可以说each of these dictionaries或each one of these dictionaries, 但不能说every of these dictionaries, 该用every one of these dictionaries。

2). each可指两个或两个以上中间的每一个,而every只可指三个或三个以上中间的每一个,不能指两个中每一个。如: 可以说each of my eyes, 不可说every one of my eye但可说every one of my toes(脚趾) 。

3). each通常用来指若干固定数目中的每一个,而every往往指“任何一个”如:

Each girl sitting over there is my student. “坐在那里的每一女孩子”指若干固定数目中的每一个,故用each。Every man must do his best. “人人都尽最大的努力”泛指任何一个人,因而用every。

4). every和not连用,即“every…not”或“not…every”构成部分否定,表示“并非每一个”的意思,each则无此结构。

5). every+ 基数词+ 复数名词=every+ 序数词+ 单数名词,作“每(多少)”解,但each不能用于这一结构中。 如: every three days?? 每三天或每隔两天,相当于 every third day。

6). every two days, every second day都作“每隔一天”解,但在实际应用中人们都用every other day来表示这一意思,every two days也有人讲,而every second day则少用的。

7). 也可以说every few days, 相当于汉语的“隔些日子”。

8). each 可以与other构成固定的搭配,即each other意思为“彼此、相互、互相”的意思,而every则不能Each与every都有“每个”的意思,但二者含义及语法功能不同,主要区别是:

1). each既可用作形容词,又可用作代词,在句中可以作定语,主语、宾语、同位语、状语等。例如:Each student has his own dictionary . (形容词,定语)每个学生都有自己的字典。Each has his good point . (代词,主语)各人有各自的优点。Our headteacher had a talk with each of us . (代词,宾语)我们的班主任与我们每个人都谈了话。

The students each have a desk . (代词,同位语)学生们每人有一张书桌。

The children can have a bag each . (副词,状语)孩子们每人可带一只提包。

2). each与every都可用作形容词,在句中作定语,但each更强调个人或个别,every更强调全体或全部。比较:I know each number of your family .我认识你们家的每个成员。

I know every number of your family .我认识你们家的每个成员。

3). each指两个或两个以上的人或事物中的“每个”;every是指许多人或事物的“全体”,与all的意思相近。试译:这条街上每边都有很多商店。[误]There are many shops on every side of the street .[正]There are many shops on each side of the street .我给她父母每人一件礼物。[误]I gave a present to every one of her parents .[正]I gave a present to each of her parents .

4). 指上下文提到过的确定数目中的“每一个”时,要用each;如果上下文没有提及时,不能用each,要用everyone等。试译:我认为这三个答案个个都正确。[误]I think every answer of the three is right .[正]I think each of the three answers is right .我看见人人都忙着工作。[误]I saw each was busy with his work .[正]I saw everyone was busy with his work .

5). each 单独作主语或each、every修饰的单数名词作主语时,谓语动词为单数形式,但each of them作主语时,谓语动词用单数或复数形式都可以。例如:Each / Each person / Every person is living a happy life now .人人都过着幸福生活。Each of them are / is wearing full dress .他们个个都身着盛装。

  6). every可以与not连用构成部分否定,意思是“并不/非人人”,而each则不可以与not连用。全部否定是no one ,意思是“个个都不”、“没有人”等。例如:人人都不喜欢这个电视剧。[误]Each / Everyone / Every one of them doesn’t like the TV play .[正]No one likes the TV play .

7). each与other可构成相互代词,every则不可以。例如:We should take care of each other and help each other .我们应该互相关心,互相帮助。

8). 表示“每隔……”、“每……”,要用“every+基数词+复数名词”。这种结构中的every不能用each替代。例如:They’ll choose one out of every ten girls .他们将在每十个姑娘里挑选一个。We hand in our homework every three days .我们每隔两天(每三天)交一次作业。注意:“每三天或每隔两天”,也可以写作“every third day”,即,若用序数词时,后接单数名词。再如every four weeks / fourth week(每四周/每隔三周),every other day / second day / two days(每隔一天),every other line(每隔一行)等。

5. all和both的用法。

1)all指三者以上,或不可数的东西。谓语动词既可以用单数,也可以用作复数。在句中作主语、表语、宾语、同位语和定语。

  All of us like Mr Pope. 我们都喜欢Pope先生。(作主语) = We all like Mr Pope. (作同位语)

  All the water has been used up. (作主语)

  That's all for today. (作表语)

  Why not eat all (of) the fish? (作宾语)

  All the leaders are here. (作定语)

2)both作代词。

①与其他名词或代词并列出现,表示“两个都”。 Lucy and Lily both agree with us.

  They both passed on their sticks at the same time.  How are your parents? They're both fine.

  ②与“of +代词(或名词)”连用,表示“两者都”。

  Both of them came to see Mary.  Both of the books are very interesting.

  ③单独使用,表示“两者(都)”。  Michael has two sons. Both are clever.

  I don't know which book is the better, I shall read both.

3)both用作形容词,放在名词之前,修饰该名词,表示“两者都”。

  Both his younger sisters are our classmates.

 . There are tall trees on both sides of the street.

六. 相互代词

    表示相互关系的代词叫做相互代词。相互代词有each other 和one another两种形 式。在当代英语中,each other和one another没有什么区别。相互代词可在句中作宾语,定语。作定语用时,相互代词用所有格形式。

 

  We should learn from each other / one another. (作宾语)

  Do you often write to each other / one another? (作宾语)

  We often borrow each other's / one another's books. (作定语)

  The students corrected each other's / one another's mistakes in their homework. (作定语)

七. 疑问代词

疑问代词有who,whom,whose,what和which等。疑问代词用于特殊疑

问句中,一般都放在句首,并在句子中作为某一句子成分。例如:

Who is going to come here tomorrow? (作主语)What is that?  (作表语)

Whose umbrella is this?  (作定语)Whom are you waiting for? (作宾语)

八.关系代词

关系代词是一种引导从句并起连接主句和从句作用的代词。关系代词有 who, whose, whom, that, which. 它们在句中可用作主语,表语,宾语,定语. 在主句中,它们还代表着从句所修饰的那个名词或代词。例如:

I hate people who talk much but do little.

I’m looking at the photograph which you sent me with your letter.

With the money that he had saved, he went on with his studies.

Do you know the lady who is interviewing our headmaster?

【实例解析】

1. (北京市中考试题) Mary, please show ________ your picture.

 A. my  B. mine  C. I  D. me

  答案:D。该提考查的是人称代词和物主代词的用法。在本题中,动词show的后面要跟双宾语,空白处缺少一个间接宾语,所以应选me。

2. (北京市中考试题)

  ---What’s on TV tonight? Is there _________ interesting?  ---I’m afraid not.

  A. something  B. anything  C. nothing  D. everything

  答案:B。该提考查的是不定代词的用法。这是一个疑问句。在疑问句中,通常用anything。

3. (上海徐汇区中考试题) ________ of them has his own opinion.

  A. Both  B. Some  C. Every  D. Each

  答案:D。该题考查的是不定代词用法。因为谓语动词是单数形式,所以Both和Some都不对。Every 不能作主语,所以只有Each合适。

 

4. (安徽省中考试题)

  ---Where is my pen?  ---Oh, sorry. I have taken _______ by mistake.

  A. yours  B. his  C. mine  D. hers

  答案:A。该题考查的是物主代词的用法。根据题干的背景,我们可以判断出错拿的钢笔应该是对方的,所以选yours。

【中考演练】

一. 单项填空

1. Tom, Please pass ________ the glasses. I want to read the newspapers.

  A. you  B. me  C. him  D. her

2. The English novel is quite easy for you. There are ______ new words in it.

  A. a little  B. little  C. a few  D. few

 

3. ---You want ________ sandwich?  ---Yes, I usually eat a lot when I’m hungry.

  A. other  B. another  C. others  D. the other

4. The doctors and nurses are doing their best to fight SARS. They think more of others than _______.

  A. they  B. them  C. themselves  D. theirs

5. ---Which do you prefer, a bottle of orange or a bottle of milk?

  ---______________, thanks. I’d like a cup of tea.

  A. Either  B. Neither  C. Both  D. None

6. ---Oh! I came in a hurry and forgot to bring food. ---Never mind. You can have ________.

  A. us  B. ours  C. you  D. yours

7. ---Can I come this evening or tomorrow morning?

  ---_______ is OK. I’m free today and tomorrow.

  A. Either  B. Neither  C. Both  D. None

8. ---How are you going to improve _______ this term?  ---Work harder than last term.

  A. ourselves  B. myself  C. himself  D. yourself

9. ---Could you tell me _______ she is looking for?  ---Her cousin, Susan.

  A. that  B. whose  C. who  D. which

10. ---Is _______ here?   ---No. Li Lei and Han Mei have asked for leave.

  A. everybody  B. somebody  C. anybody  D. nobody

11. Paul has _______ friends except me, and sometimes he feels lonely.

  A. many  B. some  C. few  D. more

12. If you want to book a round-trip ticket, you’ll have to pay ______ $ 30.

  A. more  B. other  C. the other  D. another

13. ---Do you live by yourself, Mr Wang?

   ---Yes. I have two sons. But ______ of them lives with me. They are now studying in America?

  A. neither  B. both  C. none  D. either

14. ---Have you sent your parents an E-mail telling them you arrived safe?

   ---No. _______ of them can use a computer.

  A. None  B. Both  C. Neither  D. All

15. Who taught _______ English last term? Was _____ Mr. Smith?

  A. you; it  B. you; he  C. your; it  D. your; that

16. ---That woman has a bag in her right hand. What’s in her _____ hand?

  A. another  B. other  C. one  D. the other

17. We decided to go for a field trip with some friends of _______.

  A. us  B. our  C. ours  D. ourselves

18. ---Is there a bus to the zoo?   ---I’m afraid there’s _______ bus to the zoo.

  A. no  B. any  C. some  D. none

19. You forgot your dictionary? You may have _______.

  A. me  B. my  C. mine  D. myself

20. This is ______ classroom. Where is _______?

  A. our; them  B. us; they  C. our; theirs  D. ours; theirs

二. 用所给代词的适当形式填空

1. This is not my pencil-box. _______ ( I ) is in the bag.

2. Trees are planted in ______ ( we ) country every year, which makes our country more and more beautiful.

3. ---Is that bike Miss Gao’s?  ---Yes, it is ______(she) . Beautiful, isn’t it?

4. Help ______ (you) to some fruit, Jack.

5. ---Who taught your brother to surf?  ---Nobody. He learnt all by _______ (he).

6. Their English teacher is from America, but ______ (we) is from England.

7. Mary’s answer is different from ________ ( I ).

8. ---My watch keeps good time. What about _______(you)?

  ---Mine? Oh, two minutes slow.

9. Sam is my brother. Do you like to play with ______ (he)?

10. Did you enjoy _______ (you), Mary and Kate?

三. 用适当的代词填空

1. The old man has two sons. One is a worker, _______ is a teacher.

2. Students are usually interested in sports. Some like running; some like swimming; _______ like ball games.

3. Let’s go and have a drink. We’ve got _______ time before the train leaves.

4. We were all very tired, but _______ of us would like to have a rest.

5. ______ of the twins are in our class.

6. Boys, don’t touch the machines, or you may hurt _______.

7. It is said there is going to be ________ important in the CCTV news.

8. We couldn’t buy anything because _______ of the shops opened at that time.

9. They didn’t learn _______ new in this lesson.

10. ---Why is ______ easy for such a young girl to learn three foreign languages so well?

   ---Because Britain, Germany and France are all very near ______ country.

四. 用适当的疑问代词和关系代词填空

1. ______ is the population of the world today?

2. _______ jumped the longest of all in the long jump?

3. --- _______ colour is your mother’s dress?  ---It’s black.

4. ---______ is your car?  ---The red one in front of the tree.

5. ---______ of the following can you often find on a medicine bottle?

  ---I know, sir. It’s instruction.

6. The necklace ______ she is wearing is beautiful.

7. Do you know the person _______ lost his bike?

8. Most people _______ live in less developed countries are quite poor.

9. The boy ______ is helping the old man is John’s brother.

10. People ______ use credit cards to buy things online should be very careful

【练习答案】

一. 1.B 2.D 3.B 4.C 5.B 6.B 7.A 8.D 9.C 10.A 11.C 12.D 13.A 14.C 15.A 16.B 17.C 18.A 19.C 20.C

二.1.Mine 2.our 3.hers 4.yourself 5.himself 6.ours 7.mine 8.yours 9.him 10.yourselves

三. 1..the other 2.others 3.a little 4. none 5.Both 6.yourselves 7.something 8.none 9.anything 10.it; her

四. 1. What 2. Who 3. What 4. Which 5. Which 6. that/ which 7. that/ who 8. who/that 9. who/ that 10. who/ that

 

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