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中考英语专项复习4 形容词和副词  

2012-06-12 15:14:26|  分类: 【教学资料】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 中考英语专项复习4 形容词和副词

 

【考点直击】

1. 形容词的用法;

2. 副词的用法;

3. 形容词和副词原级、比较级、最高级的用法;

4. 形容词和副词在句中的区别和位置。

【名师点睛】

1. 形容词的用法

(1) 形容词在句中作定语, 表语, 宾语补足语。 例如:

  Our country is a beautiful country. (作定语)

  The fish went bad.  (作表语)

We keep our classroom clean and tidy. (作宾语补足语)

(2) 形容词修饰something, anything, nothing, everything等不定代词时,形容词放在名词后面。

    I have something important to tell you.

    Is there anything interesting in the film.

(3) 用 and 或 or 连接起来的两个形容词作定语时一般把它们放在被修饰的名词后面。起进一步解释的作用。

     Everybody, man and woman, old and young, should attend the meeting.

     You can take any box away, big or small.

(4) the+形容词表示一类人或物

     The rich should help the poor.

2. 副词的用法

(1) 副词在句中可作状语,表语和定语。

He studies very hard.   (作状语)Life here is full of joy.  (作定语)

When will you be back? (作表语)

副词按其用途和含义可分为下面五类:

1)时间副词

时间副词通常用来表示动作的时间。常见的时间副词有:now today, tomorrow, yesterday, before, late, early, never, seldom, sometimes, often, usually, always等。例如:

He often comes to school late.  What are we going to do tomorrow?

He is never been to Beijing.

2)地点副词

地点副词通常用来表示动作发生的地点。常见的地点副词有:here, there, inside, outside, home, upstairs, downstairs, anywhere, everywhere, nowhere, somewhere, down, up, off, on, in, out等。例如:I met an old friend of mine on my way home.    He went upstairs.  

Put down your name here.

3)方式副词

方式副词一般都是回答“怎样的?”这类问题的,其中绝大部分都是由一个形容词加词尾-ly构成的, 有少数方式副词不带词尾-ly, 它们与形容词同形。常见的方式副词有:anxiously, badly, bravely, calmly, carefully, proudly, rapidly, suddenly, successfully, angrily, happily, slowly, warmly, well, fast, slow, quick, hard, alone, high, straight, wide等。例如:The old man walked home slowly.   Please listen to the teacher carefully.   The birds are flying high.

He runs very fast.

4)程度副词

程度副词多数用来修饰形容词和副词,有少数用来修饰动词或介词短语。常见的程度副词有:much, (a) little, a bit, very, so, too, enough, quite, rather, pretty, greatly, completely, nearly, almost, deeply, hardly, partly等。例如:Her pronunciation is very good.    She sings quite well.

I can hardly agree with you.

5)疑问副词是用来引导特殊疑问句的副词。常见的疑问副词有:how, when, where, why等。例如:How are you getting along with your studies?   Where were you yesterday?

Why did you do that?

(2)副词在句中的位置

1)多数副词作状语时放在动词之后。如果动词带有宾语,则放在宾语之后。例如:Mr Smith works very hard.   She speaks English well.

2)频度副词作状语时,通常放在行为动词之前,情态动词,助动词和be动词之后。例如:

He usually gets up early.   I’ve never heard him singing.   She is seldom ill.

3)程度副词一般放在所修饰的形容词和副词的前面, 但enough作副词用时,通常放在被修饰词的后面。例如:It is a rather difficult job.   He runs very fast.   He didn’t work hard enough.

4)副词作定语时,一般放在被修饰的名词之后。例如:

On my way home, I met my uncle.

The students there have a lot time to do their own research work.

(3)部分常用副词的用法

1) very, much

这两个副词都可表示“很”,但用法不同。Very用来修饰形容词和副词的原级,而much用来修饰形容词和副词的比较级。例如:

She is a very nice girl

I’m feeling much better now.

Much可以修饰动词,而very则不能。例如:

I don’t like the idea much.

They did not talk much.

2) too, either

这两个副词都表示“也”,但too用于肯定句,either用于否定句。例如:

She can dance, and I can dance, too.

I haven’t read the book and my brother hasn’t either.

3) already, yet

already一般用于语肯定句,yet一般用于否定句。例如:

He has already left.

Have you heard from him yet?

He hasn’t answered yet.

4) so, neither

so和neither都可用于倒装句, 但so表示肯定,neither表示否定。

例如:

My brother likes football and so do I.

My brother doesn’t like dancing and neither do I.

3. 形容词和副词的比较级和最高级

(1) 两个人或事物的比较时(不一定每一方只有一个人或一个事物),用比较级。

   Our teacher is taller than we are.

   The boys in her class are taller than the boys in your class.

(2) most 同形容词连用而不用 the,表示 "极,很,非常, 十分"。

   It's most dangerous to be here. 在这儿太危险。

(3) "The+形容词比较级..., the+形容词比较级..."表示 " 越... 就越..."。

   The more you study, the more you know.

 (4) " 形容词比较级 + and + 形容词比较级 ", 表示 " 越来越... "。

   It's getting hotter and hotter.

 (5) 主语+谓语(系动词)+as+形容词原形+as+从句。表示两者对比相同。

   This box is as big as mine.

 (6) the + 形容词 表示某种人。  He always helps the poor.

 (7) 形容词和副词最高级用于三个或三个以上的人和物进行比较。

   Shanghai is one of the biggest cities in China.

【实例解析】

1. (北京市中考试题)

  ---Which is ________, the sun, the moon or the earth?  ---Of course the moon is.

  A. small  B. smaller  C. smallest  D. the smallest

  答案:D。该题考查的是形容词的比较等级的用法。因为是太阳,地球和月亮三者进行比较,选用形容词的最高级,而且最高级之前要加定冠词the。所以选D。

2. (上海徐汇区中考试题)

  He has made _______ progress this term than before.

  A. little  B. less  C. fewer  D. much

  答案 B。该题考查的是形容词比较等级的用法。因为是现在和过去进行比较,所以要用比较级,又因为是修饰不可数名词,只能用less, 而不能用fewer。

3. (江西省中考试题)

  ---What delicious cakes!  ---They would taste _______ with butter.

  A. good  B. better  C. bad  D. worse

  答案:B。该题考查的是形容词的比较等级。答话人的意思应该是“如果加上点黄油,这些蛋糕会更好吃。”这里就有一种比较:加黄油和不加黄油。既然是比较,就要用比较级。因为这里讲的是好吃和更好吃,所以C,D要舍去,而选better。

4. (河北省中考试题)

  Bob never does his homework ________ Mary. He makes lots of mistakes.

  A. so careful as  B. as carefully as  C. carefully as  D. as careful as

  答案:B。该题考查的是形容词和副词的用法区别。因为该词修饰的是动作“做家庭作业”,所以要用副词。又因为表示一方不如另一方要用句型“not as+副词原级+as”,所以只能选B。

【中考演练】

一. 单项填空

1.There are many young trees on        sides of the road.

  A. every    B. each     C. both       D. all

2.--- It’s so cold today.  --- Yes, it’s       than it was yesterday.

  A. more cold    B. more colder     C. much colder     D. cold

3.Little Tom has        friends, so he often plays alone.

  A. more       B. a little        C. many           D. few

4.She isn’t so        at maths as you are.

  A. well    B. good       C. better        D. best

5.Peter writes       of the three.

  A. better      B. best      C. good            D. well

6.He is        enough to carry the heavy box.

  A. stronger          B. much stronger    C. strong           D. the strongest

7.I bought        exercise-books with        money.

  A. a few; a few   B. a few; a little    C. a little; a few     D. a little; a little

8.The box is        heavy for the girl        carry.

  A. too; to           B. to; too           C. so; that              D. no; to

9.The ice in the lake is about one meter       . It’s strong enough to skate on.

  A. long          B. high              C. thick             D. wide

10.Wu Lin ran        faster than the other boys in the sports meeting.

  A. so                B. much              C. very             D. too

11. Jone looks so _______ today because she has got an “A” in her maths test.

  A. happy  B. happily  C. angry  D. angrily

12. The smile on my father’s face showed that he was ______ with me.

  A. sad  B. pleased  C. angry  D. sorry

13. ---Mum, could you buy me a dress like this?

   ---Certainly, we can buy ______ one than this, but ______ this.

  A. a better; better than   B. a worse; as good as

  C. a cheaper; as good as  D. a more important; good as

14. ---This digital camera is really cheap!

   ---The ______ the better. I’m short of money, you see.

  A. cheap  B. cheaper  C. expensive  D. more expensive

15. If you want to learn English well, you must use it as _______ as possible.

  A. often  B. long  C. hard  D. soon

16. Paul has ______ friends except me, and sometimes he feels lonely.

  A. many  B. some  C. few  D. more

17. English people _____ use Mr. Before a man’s first name.

  A. never  B. usually  C. often  D. sometimes

18. ---One more satellite was sent up into space in China in May.

   ---Right. The government spoke ______ that.

  A. highly for      B. high of  C. well of      D. highly of

19. ---Remember this, children. ______ careful you are, ______ mistakes you will make.

  ---We know, Miss Gao.

  A. The more; the more         B. The fewer; the more

  C. The more; the fewer         D. The less; the less

20. I have ________ to do today.

  A. anything important         B. something important

  C. important nothing          D. important something

二. 用所给单词的适当形式填空

1. My purse was stolen on the bus yesterday. __________ (Fortunate), there was no money in it.

2. Mobile phones are _________ (wide) used in most of the cities in China.

3. He put on his coat and went out ________ (quick).

4. She is ______ (good) than Li Ping at swimming.

5. A lot Chinese people are _______ (pride) of Yao Ming, a famous basketball star in NBA.

6. To our surprise, he suddenly returned on a cold ______ (snow) night.

7. Allie asked me ______ (polite) to put the things away.

8. It’s snowing hard. You must drive ________(careful).

9. The earth we live on is _______ (big) than the moon.

10. Hainan is a very large island. It’s the second ________ (large) island in China.

三. 用适当的形容词或副词填空(首字母已给出)

1. A large number of mouths must be fed in those less d________ countries.

2. That evening Beethoven played the music for the girl as well as u______.

3. Hawaii is f_______ its beautiful beaches.

4. He often takes an a______ part in the sports meeting and he can get very good results each time.

5. The performance was so w_______ that everyone gave a long and loud applause(鼓掌).

6. Jiefang Road is the b_____ street in our city.

7. She lay a______ for hours thinking over her business.

8. I like ball games very much, but my f_______ sport is playing basketball.

9. The boy is too l______ . He doesn’t want to do anything.

10. The dictionary is very u________ . It will help you a lot.

【练习答案】

一. 1.C 2.C 3.D 4.B 5.B 6.C 7.B 8.A 9.C 10.B 11.A 12.B 13.C 14.B 15.A 16.C 17.A 18.D 19.C 20.B

 

二. 1. Fortunately 2. widely 3.quickly 4. better 5. proud 6. snowy 7. politely 8. carefully 9. bigger 10. largest

三. 1. developed 2. usual 3. famous 4. active 5. wonderful 6. busiest 7. awake 8. favourite  9. lazy 10. useful

 

 

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