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中考英语专项复习2 冠词和数词  

2012-06-12 14:42:08|  分类: 【教学资料】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 中考英语专项复习2 冠词和数词

 

 【考点直击】

1.不定冠词a与an的用法

2.定冠词the的用法

3."零"冠词

4.基数词的用法

5.序数词的用法

【名师点睛】

一. 冠词的用法

冠词是虚词,放在名词之前,用来说明名词指的人或事物。冠词有两种。

A(an)叫不定冠词,the叫定冠词。A用在辅音之前,an用在元音之前。

1. 不定冠词的用法

(1) a和an均用在单数名词之前,表示某一类人或事物。例如:John is a student.

Mary is an English teacher.

(2) 指某一类人或事物中的任何一个。例如:A steel worker makes steel.

Pass me an apple, please.

(3) 指某人或某物,但不具体说明何人或和物。例如:A student wants to see you.

A girl is waiting for you outside.

(4) 表示“每一”的意思,相当于every。例如:Take the medicine three times a day.

They go to see their parents once a week.

2. 定冠词用法

  (1) 特指某(些)人或某(些)事物。例如:The book on the desk is an English dictionary.

Beijing is the capital of China.

  (2) 指说话人和听话人都熟悉的人或事物。例如: Open the door, please.

 Jack is in the library.

  (3) 上文提到过的人或事物。例如:Yesterday John’s father bought him a new bike. The bike cost him 200 yuan.

  (4) 表示世界上独一无二的事物。例如:The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

  (5) 用在序数词和形容词最高级之前。例如:Shanghai is the biggest city in China.

January is the first month of the year.

  (6) 用在某些形容词之前,表示某一类人或事物。例如:The nurse is kind to the sick.

We should take good care of the old.

  (7) 用在某些专有名词之前和某些习惯用语中。例如: the Great Wall, the Summer palace, in the morning, in the open air等。

  (8) 用在姓氏复数之前,表示“某某一家人”,“某某夫妇”。例如: the Browns, the whites等。

3. 不用冠词的情况

 (1) 某些专有名词,抽象名词和物质名词前一般不用冠词。例如:China, Canada, Japanese, glass, water, love等。

 (2) 名词前已有作定语用的this, that, my, your, whose, some, any, no, each, every等代词时,不用冠词。例如: That is my cap.     I have some questions.     Go down this street.

(3) 复数名词表示一类人或事物时,不用冠词。They are workers.  We are students.

(4) 称呼语前不用冠词,表示头衔和职务的名词前也不加冠词。例如:I don’t feel well today, Mother.       Bush was made president of the U.S.

(5) 三餐饭的名称前,球类活动,学科和节目名词前,常不用冠词。例如:I have lunch at home.

He often plays football after class.

We have English and maths every day.

(6) 在某些固定词组里,名词之前常不用冠词。例如:By air, at night, at home, go to bed, go to school, on foot, from morning till night 等。

二. 数词的用法

数词分基数词和序数词。基数词表示数目,序数词表示顺序。

1. 基数词的用法

(1) 基数词在句中主要用作主语、宾语、定语、表语、同位语,例如: Thirty of them are Party members.(主语)

--- How many would you like?    --- Three ,please.(作宾语)

The nine boys are from Tianjing.(定语)

 Six plus four is ten.(表语)    We four will go with you.(同位语)

(2) 表示一个具体数字时,hundred, thousand, million一律不用复数;在表示一个不确定数字时则用复数。例如:Our country has a population of 1,300 million people.

There are three thousand students in our school.

After the war, thousands of people became homeless.

Maize is the most important food crop for millions of people in the world.

They arrived in twos and threes.

(3) 表示“……十”的数词的复数形式可用来表示人的岁数或年代,例如:  He is in his early thirties.   He died still in his forties.     This took place in 1930s.

(4) 表示时刻用基数词。例如:We get up at six.   The workers begin work at eight.

  表示“几点过几分”,用介词past,但须在半小时以内。例如:ten past ten,   a quarter past nine,  half past twelve

  表示“几点差几分”用介词to, 但分数须在半小时以上。例如:twenty to nine,  five to eight,   a quarter to ten

 表示“几点几分”还可直接用基数词。例如:seven fifteen,   eleven thirty,  nine twenty

  2. 序数词的用法

  (1)序数词主要用作定语,前面要加定冠词,例如: The first truck is carrying a food basket.

John lives on the fifteenth floor.

 (2)序数词有时前面可加不定冠词来表示“再一”,“又一”这样的意思,例如:

We'll have to do it a second time. Shall I ask him a third time?  When I sat down,a fourth man rose to speak.

(3)由几个序数词和基数词在拼写时不对应,很容易写错,应特别注意。它们是:one---first, two---second, three---third, five---fifth, eight---eighth, nine---ninth, twelve---twelfth。

(4)表示年,月,日时, 年用基数词表示,日用序数词表示。例如:1949年十月一日读作: October (the) first, nineteen sixty

2004年九月十日读作:September (the) tenth, two thousand and four

(5)表示分数时,分子用基数词表示,分母用序数词表示。分子大于1时,分母加-s。例如:three fourths,   one second,  two fifths

 

(6)序数词有时用缩写形式:

       first→1st    second→2nd   third→3rd   fourth→4th    twenty-second→22nd

【实例解析】

1. (上海市徐汇区中考试题)

  About ________ students in our class can describe that place in English.

  A. three-fifths  B. three-fifth  C. third-five  D. third-fifths

  答案:A。该题考查的是分数的表示法。分子用基数词表示,分母用序数词表示。分子大于1时,分母应加-s,因此应选A。

2. (河北省中考试题)

  Nine _______ pounds a week? That’s very good.

  A. hundred of                     B. hundreds of

  C. hundreds                       D. hundred

  答案:D。该题考查的是数词的用法。Nine hundred是一个具体的数量,这是数词不能用复数形式,后面也不能加of。所以应选D。

3. (北京市海淀区中考试题)

  We often have sports after class, and I like to play _______ basketball.

  A. a  B. an  C. the  D. 不填

  答案:D。该题考查的是冠词的用法。球类运动之前不加冠词,因此应选D。

4. (江西省中考试题)

  This is _______ song I’ve told you about. Isn’t it _______ beautiful one?

  A. the; the  B. a; a  C. the; a  D. a; the

  答案:C。该题考查的是冠词的用法。第一个空是特指,特指我给你说过的那首歌,第二个空是表示某一个类别。所以应选C。

【中考演练】

一. 单项填空

  1. This morning I had ________ egg and a bottle of milk for my breakfast.

    A. an  B. a  C. the  D./

  2. ---What’s the matter with you?

     ---I caught ________ bad cold and had to stay in ________.

    A. a;/  B. a; the  C. a; a  D. the; the

  3. ---Have you seen _______ pen? I left it here this morning.

     ---Is it ________ black one? I think I saw it somewhere.

    A. a; the  B. the; the  C. the; a  D. a; a

  4. _______ sun is shining brightly.    A. A  B. An  C. The  D. /

  5. There is _______ “h” in the word hour.    A. a  B. the  C. an  D./

 6. Did you enjoy your stay in Xian?  Yes. I had _______ wonderful time.

    A. a  B. an  C. the  D. /

  7. ______ sun is bigger than _______ earth.

    A. A; the  B. A; an  C. The; an  D. The; the

  8. There is _______ apple and some pears on the table.    A. the  B./  C. a  D. an

  9. David has _______ cat. It’s very nice.    A. a  B. an  C. the  D./

  10. I’m reading _______ novel. It is _______ interesting story.

    A. a; an  B. a; a  C. the; the  D. /; an

  11. It is said that SARS has killed more than ________ people worldwide.

    A. three hundreds     B. three hundreds’

    C. three hundred’s     D. three hundred

  12. ---How many workers are there in your factory?     ---There are two __________.

    A. hundreds  B. hundred  C. hundred of  D. hundreds of

  13. ---Which is the smallest number of the four?     ---_______________.

    A. Two-thirds  B. A half  C. A quarter  D. Three-fourths

  14. ---What do you think of a war, Li Ming?

     ---I’ve no idea. But it’s a fact that _______ people had to leave their hometown during the War on Iraq.

    A. three thousands          B. thousand of

    C. thousands of             D. several thousands

  15. We all think that the _______ century will bring us more hopes.

    A. twenty-first        B. twentieth-first    C. twenty-one        D. twentieth-one

  16. ---Can you write the number eighty-five thousand, six hundred and twenty-six?

     ---Yes, it is __________.

    A. 856620  B. 85626  C. 58662  D. 58626

  17. When was the PRC founded? It was founded on _________.

    A. July 1, 1921          B. October 1, 1949

    C. August 1, 1927        D. May 1, 1922

  18. I was 8 years old when my father was 31. This year my father is twice my age. How old am I?

    A. 21  B. 22  C. 23  D. 24

  19. _______ Chinese are looking for ways to learn English well before Beijing 2008 Olympics.

    A. Thousand  B. Thousands  C. Thousand of  D. Thousands of

  20. Both of the two rulers are broken. I want to buy a _______one.

    A. three  B. third  C. forth  D. /

二. 句子改错:下面各句A, B, C, D中有一处错误,请指出并改正。

1. May  is   a   fifth month of  the  year.

       A    B    C           D

2. The  film  has been on  for  half  a  hour.

   A           B        C       D

3. The boys and the girls often play  the  foot ball in   the  afternoon.

                A         B   C               D

4. It looks rain. Why not  take  a  umbrella  with  you?

    A                 B   C             D

5. Li Mei often gives us some good information  by  the  e-meil.

               A                 B      C   D

6. We’ve planted  two hundreds trees in  the  centre of our city this year.

          A         B              C        D

7. Five million   of  dollars  is  a lot of money.

      A        B          C          D

8. There  are  thousand  of   children in the park now.

         A       B    C     D

 

9. By the end of  twenty  century, the world  population  had passed six billion.

   A             B                        C                  D

10. Over three fifth of  the world’s books and newspapers  are  written in English.

           A        B                            C         D

【练习答案】

一. 1.A 2.A 3.D 4.C 5.C 6.A 7.D 8.D 9.A 10.A11.D 12.B 13.C 14.C 15.A 16.B 17.B 18.C 19.D 20.B

二. 1.B a→the 2.D a→an 3.C 去掉the 4.C a→an 5.D去掉the 6.B two hundreds→two hundred 7.B 去掉of 8.B thousand→thousands 9.B twenty→twentieth 10.A three fifth→three fifths

 

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