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英语冠词部分语法详解和配套练习  

2012-06-24 09:49:59|  分类: 【英语语法】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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英语冠词部分语法详解          

【复习目标】

▲掌握定冠词与不定冠词的用法。 

【课前准备】

●要求学生对冠词的用法作一归纳。 

【知识要点】

(一)不定冠词a,an的用法如下:

a用于辅音音素开头的词前,an用于元音音素开头的词前。

值得注意的是:

A. 如果不定冠词后面第一个词以元音字母u开头就用a。例如university, useless, useful, unit, uniform。

B. 如果不定冠词后面第一个词以不发音的h开头,而h后面第一个音的音素是元音因素,就用an。例如hour, honest。

C. 如果不定冠词和名词前有其他词,不定冠词的形式仍取决于它后面第一个词的语音形式。例如an actress, a beautiful actress。

1表示人或事物的某一类(含义相当于一类事物的任何一个)

  A dictionary is a useful book.

  An underground train can start and stop quickly.

2用于表示数量、时间的名词前,表示“一”的意思,但数的概念没有one强烈。The plan will be ready in a day or two,  once a week.

3.泛指某人或某物,但未具体说明何人、何物,如:

  A boy is waiting for me.

Give me a pen, please.

4用于某些固定短语中

如: a few, a little, a lot of, a number of, just a minute, in a hurry, for a while, for a long time, a cup of, a bottle of, have a rest, have a talk, have a fever, have a good time, have(take) a walk,  have a toothache, take a bath, give a lesson

(二)定冠词用法如下:

定冠词的用法如下:

1.指彼此都知道的人或事物,如:
      Open the door, please.
      Go and close the window.

2.特指某(些)人或某(些)事物,如:
      The girl in red is my sister.

  The man over there is our English teacher.

  The book on the desk is mine.

3.指前面提到过的人或事物,如:

  Here is a picture of a modern car factory. My father works in the factory.

4.用在序数词和形容词最高级前,在方位词前。如:

  The Nile is the longest river in the world.

  He won the first prize.

The sun rises in the east.

5.用在某些名词化的形容词,过去分词前,表示一类人或事物, 如:

  the rich, the sick, the new , the false

6.用在某些专用名词前, 如:

  the Great Wall

  the People’s Republic of China

  the United Nations

  the Netherlands

7.在江河、海洋、山脉、湖泊、群岛的名称的前面,如:

  the North China Plain

  the Rocky Mountains

  the Yangtse River

8.在一些用语中,如:

  in the morning(/afternoon/evening), in the day, by the way, on the whole, the next morning, all the year around, the other day, at the same time

 

(三)不用冠词的情况

1.专有名词人名,地名,节日,月份,年份,星期和不可数名词(一般指物质名词和抽象名词)前一般不用冠词。如:
      China, Beihai Park

2.名词前面已有用作定语的 this, that, my, your, some, any , no等代词作定语时,不用冠词。如:

  The letter is from my father.

  I have a book in my hand.

3.在复数名词表示一类人或事物时,如:

  Horses are useful animals.

  I like cakes.

4.在节日名称,(称呼语和表示官衔的名词前)星期、月份、季节前。如:

  Today is Sunday.

  Spring is the best season in the year.

Children’s Day

5.表示某一类人或事物的复数名词前。 

6.球类,棋类,语言,三餐,游戏名称和颜色前不加冠词。如:

  I like to play basketball.

  We have lunch at school.

7.在表示家庭成员名称,称呼语,表示头衔或职务的名词前不加冠词。

8. 在某些固定搭配和习惯用语中,如:

  go to school , be in hospital, be in prison

注意下列词组的区别, in fort of与in the front of, in hospital与in the hospital, at table与at the table, go to school与go to the school, a number of children=many children, The number of children =孩子的数量 

 

二、复习时需要注意的要点

(1)在school, college, university, hospital, prison, church, class, table, bed等表示机构名称、组织名称和家具的名词前,用定冠词和用不定冠词意义有差异。用定冠词强调处所,而不用定冠词意义有所引申。比较:

at table  就餐

at the table  坐在桌边

go to school  去上学

go to the school  去这个学校

in hospital  住院

in the hospital  在这家医院

go to prison  (违法而)进监狱

go to the prison  到监狱

go to church  做礼拜

go to the church  到教堂

in class  在课堂上

in the class  在班级里

(2)在某些词前用不同冠词(定冠词、不定冠词和零冠词),意义大不相同,例如:

a little/few 有一点

little/few 几乎没有

a number of  许多

the number of  ……的数目

in front of  在……前面

in the front of  在……前部

take place  发生

take the place of  代替

out of the question  根本不可能

out of question  没有问题

the most beautiful  最漂亮

most beautiful  非常漂亮

for a moment  片刻

for the moment  暂时

 

实战演练

一、例题选讲

例1

There is          “h” in          word “photo”.

 

A.

a,a

B.

an,the

C.

the,an

D.

an,an

答案:

B

提示:

h虽然是辅音字母,但发的音是元音音素开头的,因此要用an,而word    是特指,所以后面要用the。

例2

She is          honest girl.

 

A.

an

B.

a

C.

/

D.

the

答案:

A

提示:

“honest”中h是不发音的,因此这个单词是元音音素开头的。

例3

He goes to school after          breakfast.

 

A.

/

B.

the

C.

an

D.

a

答案:

A

提示:

在表示三顿饭前不用定冠词。

例4

          Browns are going to visit          Yangtse River. It is          longest river in          China and          third longest river in          world

 

A.

The…the…the…the…the…the

B.

The…the…the…/…the…the

C.

/…the…the…the…/…the

D.

The…/…the…the…the…the

答案:


B

提示:

the+姓氏的复数形式表示一家人,在江河、海洋、山脉、湖泊、群岛的名称的前面要用定冠词the,而形容词最高级前面通常要加定冠词the,the+序数词+最高级表示第几,而in the world表示在世界上。

 

 

英语冠词部分语法专项练习题及答案

        

一、选择填空:

1. She is ____ girl. She is ____ English girl.

  A. a, a              B. an, a          C. a, an                D. a, /

2. Tom is ____ English. He is ____ English boy.

  A. an, an         B. / , an          C. / , /                       D. a, a

3. ____ live in Room 208.

  A. The Green      B. Green         C. The Greens           D. Greens

4. January is ____ first month of the year.

  A. a              B. /             C. an                  D. the

5. We should think of ____ old and ____ sick.

  A. a, a            B. an, a          C. the, the             D. /, /

6. ____ number of the students in our class is 52.

  A. A              B. An           C. The                 D. /

7. She can play ____ piano, but she can’t play ____ football.

  A. the, the          B. the, /          C. /, the                D. a, a

8, There is ____ “s” in the word “six” and ____ “s” is the first letter of the word.

  A. a, the            B. a, an         C. an, the                       D. a, a

9. A horse is ____ useful animal.

  A. an               B. a               C. the                   D. this

10. He has already worked for ____ hour.

   A. an              B. a                 C. the                     D. three

11. Lucy wants to become ____.

   A. some teacher   B. a teacher        C. teacher                 D. teachers

12. Hainan is ____ island, isn’t it?

   A. the            B. one           C. a                    D. an

13. What do you usually do after ____?

   A. the class      B. class           C. the classes             D. a class

14. I’ll have to buy ____ trousers.

   A. a            B. two           C. a pair of                     D. pair

15. I’ve thrown my old shoes away. I’ll have to buy ____.

   A. a new pair    B. a new one    C. some new     D. some new pair

16. My uncle told me he was going to visit ____.

   A. the United State  B. The United States  C. United States  D. United State

17. They failed six times, but they have decided to try____.

   A. seven times   B. the seven time   C. the seventh time   D. seventh time

18. Who are those boys? One is my brother and ____.

   A. the big boy is Mike             B. a big is Mike

   C. the big boy is a Peter            D. a big boy is a Peter

19. You will find ____ girl in black. She is ____ teacher.

   A. a, the       B. the, a         C. a, a          D. the, the

20. ____ birds can fly very high in ____ sky.

   A. The, the     B. The, a        C. An, the       D. A, the

21. I’m not looking at ____

   A. sun        B. sky           C. the sun           D. some sky

22. The little boy wishes to be ____

   A. Lei Feng    B. the Lei Feng    C. this Lei Feng     D. a Lei Feng

23. ____ have studied English in our school.

   A. Most of students              B. The most students

   C. Most of the students           D. Most students

24. Tom’s brother hit Bob on ____ nose.

   A. his      B. the       C. its         D. a

25. We are going to have an exam ____.

   A. in the class   B. in a class   C. at the class    D. in class

26. We have had ____.

   A. good dinner   B. a good dinner   C. the good dinner   D. good dinners

27. ____ fine weather we have today! Let’s go swimming.

   A. What a       B. How          C. What          D. How a

28. There’s ____ apple tree behind ____ house.

   A. an, the       B. a, a           C. an, a           D. the, the

29. We can see the sun in ____ daytime, but we can’t see it at ____ night.

   A. a, the        B. the, /         C. a, /            D. an, /

30. I saw ____ old man walking across the street and ___ old man looked worried.

   A. an, an       B. the, the       C. an, the          D. the, an

31. What ____ it is!

   A. a heavy rain   B. heavy rain    C. a heavy rains    D. heavy rains

32. ____ time we had at the party!

   A. What wonderful              B. What a wonderful

   C. How wonderful              D. How a wonderful

33. ____ tallest building in the town is ____ Bank of China.

   A. The, the    B. A, a      C. The, a        D. A, the

34. Little Tom looked at the big shark ____.

   A. in the surprise   B. in surprised   C. in surprise   D. at a surprise

35. ____ more carefully you ride, ____ fewer falls you’ll get.

   A. The, the    B. A, the    C. The, a    D. A, a

36. He has made____ decision that he will be ____ inventor some time.

   A. a, the      B. a, an     C. the, an     D. the, the

37. – We haven’t seen for ____ long time. Where have you been?

   - I have been for ____ holiday with my parents.

   - Have ____ nice time!

   - Thank you.

   A. a, the, a    B. the, a, a    C. a, a, a     D. a, the, the

38. – Excuse me, can you tell me way to ____ Xinhua Bookstore?

   - Go along this road, and then turn to ____ right at ____ first crossing, at ____ end of the street, you can find it.

   A. the, a, the, the, the        B. a, the, the, a, the

   C. the, the, the, a, the        D. the, the, the, the, the

39. Why nor take ____ friend with you? That’s ____ good idea.

   A. a, the      B. the, the       C. a, a         D. the, a

40. Take the medicine three times ____ day.

   A. a         B. the           C. an          D. /

41. English is ____ language. It is ____ important tool.

   A. a, a       B. a, an         C. the, an       D. a, /

42. Meimei has ____ high fever and his mother is looking after her.

   A. a         B. the          C. an          D. /

43. Lucy takes ____ walk after supper every day.

   A. the       B. a          C. /           D. an

44.Paper is made of ____ wood.

   A. a         B. the         C. /          D. that

45. ____ February is the second month of the year.

   A. The       B. A         C. /           D. an

46. We have no classes on ____ Sundays.

   A. the       B. a          C. an         D. /

47. I studied ____ English in ____ England.

   A. /, /       B. an, the      C. an, an      D. /, the

48. We go to school by ____ bus.

   A. /         B. a          C. the         D. an

49. These boys play ____ football after class.

   A. a         B. the        C. an         D. /

50. There is ____ bridge over the river, ____ bridge is made of stone.

   A. a, a       B. a, the      C. the, the     D. the, a

51. Sunday is ____ first day of the week.

   A. the       B. /          C. a          D. an

52. ____ Greens were having breakfast at seven this morning.

   A. A        B. An        C. /           D. The

53. She is one of ____ most popular teachers in this school. Every student loves her.

   A. a        B. the        C. an          D. /

54. There is ____ 800-metre-ong bridge over the river.

   A. a        B. an         C. the         D. /

55. ____ number of the students are playing ____ basketball on the playground.

   A. A, a      B. The, the      C. The, a       D. A, /

56. They often take a walk in ___ Bei Hai Park.

   A. the       B. a          C. /           D. this

57. The old man was ill in ____ hospital.

   A. the       B. /          C. a           D. an

58. There is no ____ book on the desk.

   A. the       B. a          C. an          D. /

59. Beijing is ____ capita of ____ People’s Republic of ____China.

   A. a, the, the    B. the, the, /    C. the, the, the    D. the, a, the

60. He started ____ school when he was seven.

   A. the         B. a          C. an          D./

61. He has ____ great deal of interest in ____ English.

   A. a, an       B. the, the      C. a, /         D. a, the

62. He is ____ cleverest boy in our school.

   A. a          B. an          C. the         D. /

63. She often spends much ____ time reading.

   A. a          B. an          C. the         D. /

64. Boys likes to go ____ boating.

   A. a          B. an          C. /           D. the

65.-Where’s          nearest bookstore?-There’s one at          end of the street.

            A.the…an   B.a…the   C.the…the             D.a…an

66.    -What do you think of          film “National Treasure”?

-It’s          wonderful film, I think.

            A.a…a    B.a…the   C.the…the   D.The…a

67.  S.H.E is going to sing at          CCTV annual Spring Festival Evening Party

            A.a   B.an   C.the   D./

68.  There is          “h” in the word “photo”.

            A.a    B.an   C.the    D./

69.Please pay attention to your spelling. You’ve dropped          “m” here.

            A.the   B.an   C.a    D./

二、用适当的冠词填空

  1. Thomas Edison was one of ____ greatest inventors on ____ world.

  2. Man is ____ only animal that can talk.

  3. Is this house ____ older of the two?

  4. ____ earth moves around ____ sun.

  5. I live in ____ northeast of China.

  6. There are sixty minutes in ____ hour.

  7. ____ honest boy is Jim, ____ friend of mine.

  8. Children usually go to ____ school at ____ age of seven.

  9. Here is ____ useful book to read.

  10. Would you like ____ rice or ____ bread for your breakfast?

  11. ____ poor are always happier than ____ rich.

  12. He took me by ____ hand.

  13. They have ____ son and ____ daughter. ____ son is a doctor and ____ daughter is a teacher.

  14. ____ orange is orange.

  15. He watched the student from ____ head to ____ foot.

  16. What ____ interesting book it is!

  17. ____ clouds over ____ sea were lovely yesterday.

  18. There is ____ little milk in the fridge, I’ll go and buy some.

 

 

参考答案:

一、1C 2B 3C 4D 5C 6C 7B 8C 9B 10A 11B 12D 13B14C15A 16B 17C 18A 19B 20A 21C 22D 23C 24B 25D 26B 27C 28A 29B 30C 31A 32 B 33A 34C 35A 36B 37C 38D 39C 40A 41B 42A 43B 44C 45C 46D 47A 48A 49D 50B 51A 52D 53B 54B 55D 56C 57B 58D 59B 60D 61C 62C 63D 64C  65.C      66.D         67.D    68.B      69.B 

二、1.the,the  2.the  3.the  4.The, the  5.the  6. an   7. The, a  8. /, the  9. a

    10. /, /  11. The, the  12. the  13. a, a, The, the  14. An  15. /, /  16. an 

17. The, the  18. /


 

 

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