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中考英语专题复习14 主谓一致  

2012-06-13 11:20:06|  分类: 【教学资料】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 中考英语专题复习14 主谓一致

 

 

【考点直击】

1. 语法一致的原则

2. 意义一致的原则

3. 邻近一致的原则

【名师点睛】

谓语受主语支配,须和主语在人称和数上保持一致,这叫做主谓一致。主谓

一致一般遵循三条原则:语法一致原则,意义一致原则和就近一致原则。

1. 语法一致的原则

(1)以单数名词或代词,动词不定式短语作主语时,谓语动词要用单数;主语为复数时,谓语用复数,例如:He goes to school early every morning.  The children are playing outside.

To work hard is necessary for a student.

(2)由and或both……and连接的并列成分作主语时,谓语动词用复数。例如:

Both he and I are right.

Mr Black and Mrs Black have a son called Tom.

但并列主语如果指的是同一人,同一事物或同一概念,谓语动词用单数。例如:

His teacher and friend is a beautiful girl.      The poet and writer has come.

(3)由and连接的并列单数主语之前如果分别由each, every修饰时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:In our country every boy and every girl has the right to receive education.

Each man and each woman is asked to help.

(4)主语是单数时,尽管后面跟有 but ,except, besides, with 等介词短语,谓语动词仍用单数。例如:The teacher with his students is going to visit the museum.

Nobody but two boys was late for class.   Bread and butter is a daily food in the west.

(5) 一些只有复数形式的名词,如people, police, cattle, clothes等作主语时,谓语动词要用复数。例如:A lot of people are dancing outside.  The police are looking for lost boy.

(6)由each, some, any, no, every 构成的复合代词作主语时,谓语动词都用单数。例如:Is everybody ready?        Somebody is using the phone.

(7)有两部分构成的物体的名词,如glasses, shoes, trousers, chopsticks, scissors 等作主语时,谓语动词用复数。例如:Where are my shoes? I can’t find them.   Your trousers are dirty. You’d better change them.

如果这类名词前用了a pair of等,则往往用作单数,谓语动词的单复数形式往往取决于pair的单复数形式。例如: Here are some new pairs of shoes.   My new pair of socks is on the bed.

2. 意义一致的原则

(1)表时间、距离、价格、度量衡等的名词作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数。例如:Twenty years is not a long time.   Ten dollars is too dear.

(2)有些集合名词,如family, team等作主语时,如作为一个整体看待,谓语动词用单数;如指其中每个成员,则用复数。例如:My family is big one.  My family are watching TV.

(3)不定代词由all, most, more, some, any, none作主语时,也要依这些代词表示的意义来决定谓语动词的单复数形式。如果代词代表复数可数名词,谓语动词用复数;如果代词代表单数可数名词或不可数名词,谓语动词用单数。例如:All of the work has been finished.

All of the people have gone.

(4)疑问代词作主语时,其谓语动词也有两种情况:主语表示复数意义,谓语动词用复数;主语表示单数意义,则谓语动词用单数。例如: Who is your brother?

Who are League members?

(5)“分数或百分数+of+名词”构成的词组作主语时,其谓语动词要以of后面的名词而定。名词是复数,谓语动词用复数:名词是单数,谓语动词用单数。例如:It is said that 35 per cent of the doctors are women.      Three –fourths of the surface of the earth is sea.

(6)half, the rest等表示不定数量的名词作主语时,如果所指为复数意义,动词用复数;如果所指为单数意义,动词用单数。例如:I have read a large part of the book, the rest is more difficult.        Only ten students attended the class because all the rest were off sick.

(7)由what 引导地主于从句作主语时,通常谓语动词用单数形式。但如果所指内容为复数意义时,谓语动词用复数形式。例如: What she said is correct.   What she left me are a few old books.

(8)凡是以“定冠词+形容词(或分词)”作主语,往往根据意义一致的原则决定谓语动词的单复数形式。如果这种主语指的是一类人,谓语动词用复数;如果指的是一个人或抽象概念,谓语动词用单数形式。例如:The sick have been cured and the lost have been found.

The dead is a famous person.

3. 邻近一致的原则

(1)由连词or, either……or, neither……nor,  not only…but also,等连接的并列主语,如果一个是单数,一个是复数,则谓语动词按就近一致原则,与最靠近它的主语一致。例如:

Either you or I am right.  Neither the children nor the teacher knows anything about it.

(2)在“There be” 句型中,谓语动词和靠近的主语一致。 There are two apples and one egg in it.

(3)as well as 和名词连用时,谓语动词和第一个名词相一致。

He as well as I is responsible for it.   不但是我,他对这件事也有责任。

(4)以here开头的句子,其谓语动词和靠近的主语一致。 Here is a letter and some books for you.

【实例解析】

1. (天津市中考试题)  How time flies! Ten years ________ passed.

  A. have  B. has  C. is  D. are

  答案:B。该题考查的是主谓一致。Ten years通常被看作是一个时间整体,谓语动词用单数形式。

2. (南通市中考试题)

  Not only his parents but also his brother ________ to the Summer Palace. They haven’t been back.

  A. have been  B. have gone  C. has been  D. has gone

  答案:D。该题考查的是主谓一致。如果由not only…but also连接两个并列主语,其谓语动词同相邻的主语保持一致,谓语动词应用单数形式。又因为他们还都没有回来,所以用has gone而不用has been。

3. (吉林市中考试题)  Neither my father ________ going to see the patient.

  A. nor I am    B. nor I are  C. or me are    D. or me is

  答案:A。该题考查的是主谓一致。Neither…nor是一组连词,可连接连个并列主语,其谓语动词应同靠近的主语I保持一致, 因此应选A。

4. (包头市中考试题) Look! There _______ playing with the tourists on Yinhe Square.

  A. are a number of deer   B. are a number of deers

  C. is a number of deer   D. is a number of deers

  答案:A。该题考查的是主谓一致。这个句子的主语是a number of deer, 是个复数概念,因此谓语动词应用复数形式。(deer单复数相同)

【中考演练】

一. 选择填空

1. They said the eighteenth and last lesson _______ quite easy.

  A. is  B. was  C. are  D. were

2. ---When are you going to Kumming for your holidays?

  ---I haven’t decided. ______ this Sunday ______ next Sunday is OK.

  A. Both; and  B. Either; or  C. Neither; nor  D. Not only; but also

3. ______ Helen ______ Joan speaks beautiful Chinese after they came to China.

  A. Neither; nor  B. Not only; but also  C. Both; and  D. A and B

4. _______ of them has his own opinion.

  A. Both  B. Some  C. Every  D. Each

5. Are there any _______ on the farm?

  A. horse  B. duck  C. chicken  D. sheep

6. My shirt _____ white and my trousers _____ blue.

A. are; are   B. are; is   C. is; is    D. is; are

7. ------Two months _______ quite a long time.

------Yes. I’m afraid that he will miss a lot of lessons.

A. is B. are C. was D. were

8. The old man has two children but _____ of them lives with him.

A. both B. none C. neither D. all

9. Our knowledge of computer _____ growing all the time.

A. be B. is C. are D. were

10. Everyone except Tom and John _____ there when the meeting began.

A. is B. was C. are D. were

11. Most of the houses _______ this year.

A. has built  B. have built  C. has been built D. have been built

12. I think maths _____ very difficult to learn.

A. is B. are C. has D. have

13. A large number of students _____ to work in Xingjiang.

A. have gone B. has gone C. goes D. is going

14. The number of the students in the class ______ small.

A. are B. is C. have D. were

15. There _____ a lot of good news in today’s newspaper.

A. is B. are C. was D. were

二. 用所给动词的适当形式填空

1. _____ (be) everything OK?

2. Nobody _______ (know) the answer to the question.

3. Ten divided by two _______ (be) five.

4. Most of the drinking water ______ (be) from the Black River.

5. Not only she but also I _______ (do) morning exercises every day.

6. Either you or she _____ (have) made a wrong decision.

7. The family _____(be) spending the weekend together.

8. Bread and butter ______ (be) her daily breakfast.

9. The police _____ (be) trying to catch the thief.

10. The number of people invited _____ fifty, but a number of them ____ absent for different reasons.

三. 翻译下列句子

1.我们两个人都没有看这部电影。  ___________________________.

2.我的茶杯里没有水了。  ___________________________.

3.不是他就是我要到哪儿去。  ___________________________.

4.学生们和老师都不知道这件事。  ___________________________.

5.我们家正在一起度周末。  ___________________________.

【练习答案】

一. 1. B 2.B 3.D 4.D 5.D 6.D 7.A 8.C 9.B 10.B11.D 12.A 13.A 14.B 15.A

二. 1.Is 2.knows 3.is 4.is 5.do 6.has 7.are 8.is 9.are 10.was; were

三. 1.Neither of us has seen the film.

2.There is no water in my cup.

3.Either he or I is going there.

4.Neither the students nor the teacher knows this matter.

5.Our family are spending the weekend together.

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