注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

.

.

 
 
 

日志

 
 

英语非谓语动词的用法  

2012-06-18 09:51:22|  分类: 【英语语法】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

 

 

英语非谓语动词的用法

 

在英语语法中,掌握好动词的用法是最重要的,而非谓语动词又是动词中非常重要的一部分,由于它们内容多,有些用法相似,所以不好掌握,经常被混淆用错,笔者通过列表比较方法,我们会对非谓语动词的用法一目了然,找出异同,更好的掌握它们的用法,下面通过列表比较的方式,分析非谓语动词的主要用法。

非谓语动词和谓语动词的相对时间关系

说明行为在谓语动词所表示的行为之后,多数是那些表愿望的词:want; hope; expect; wish等。

I saw him come in.

We enjoyed seeing the film.

在动词insist on; rely on; count on(相信)等后表示动作在谓语动词表示的动作之后发生。

在有些明确表示时间先后的动词和介词on; upon after代替完成动名词表示的动作在谓语动词表示的动作先发生。

I remember seeing him before.

On arriving Beijing, he went to see his friend.

He stood there speaking.

Holding a book under his arm, he entered the room.

Entering the room, I found nobody in.

Turning to the right, you will find the post office.

Written in simple English, the book is easy to read.

Educated by the party, he became a brave fighter.

I'm sorry to have troubled you. 

He is said to have come here.

He is thought to have done it.

He is believed to have done it.

在wish, hope, expect, intend, mean, suppose等动词过去时后,说明行为动词没有实现。

We wished to have done this.

I expected to have left by then.

 

We regret having told you the news.

After having finished his work, he went home. 

说明分词表示的动作,此句中谓语动词表示的动作先发生。多数表示一些瞬时间动词。如果是hear; see或表示位置转移的动词arrive; leave; turn; open.不用完成时

Having finished his work, he went home.

Sitting down with him, we begun to discuss it.

The meeting is to be held next week.

有时主动形式表示被动的意义,同被动没什么区别,具有“应该”.“值的”的意思。不定式是主语的承受者,但有时作某些形容词的宾语, 如:nice, easy, hard, difficult, fit, suitable, good, heavy, comfortable, cheap等。

The box is not strong enough to stand this.

It's too small to see.

There is a lot of work to do

The house is to let at low rent.

I am not to blame.

Houses are still to seek.

Much remains to do.

My watch needs repairing.

The building being built is a school.

Not having been told, he didn't know where to start.


not having been told about it, I don't know how to do it.

Given more time, (=Having been given) I can do it much better. 


动词不定式表示比较具体的意义,经常和特定的动作和执行者联系起来,经常带时间或地点状语,有时表示将要发生的动作。

To master a foreign language is no easy job.

To do it well is my earnest desire

To see this film is to waste time.

To solve this problem is out of the question 

  动词不定式(短语)作主语时,常见的另一种形式是在句首用先行代词it作形式主语,而将动词不定式(短语)移到谓语之后作真正主语。用于这种形式是一些特定形容词,动词和名词

1)形容词作表语(常见的形容词有:important, difficult, easy hard possible)

It is foolish to act in this way.

It sounds reasonable to do it this way.

It appears likely for them to arrive.

2) 动词作谓语(常见的动词有:require, cost, amuse, delight, irritate, annoy

It took much time to do this.

It makes us excited to think about that.

It needed hard work to finish the job.

It does no good to say like that.

It didn't occur to me to ask him to help me.

It seems a pity to waste them.

It is a great pleasure to do this

Collecting stamps is a good hobby.

Swimming is a best sport in summer.

There is no telling what will happen.

There is no denying the fact.

动名词短语作主语时,常见的另一种形式是在句首用先行代词it作形式主语面将动名词短语移至谓语之后作真实主语。用于这种形式是一些特定形容词和名词

1)形容词作表语(常见的形容词有:enjoyable, good, hard, worthwhile)

It is nice talking to you.

It's foolish behaving like that.

It is useless doing that

It's waste of time doing this. It's no good (use) doing that.

It's an awful job doing this.   It's fun doing this

I want to read a novel.

用于该形式的常见的动词有:afford, agree, aim, apply, arrange, ask, choose, claim, decide, decline, demand, desire, determine, expect, hope, learn, manage, offer, pretend, promise, refuse, seek, swear, threaten, wish.

有时宾语省略不定式符号(常见的有:let fall, let pass, let go, let slip, 'd better, 'd rather, 'd soon, 

动词不定式(短语)作宾语时,如其后有补足语,则可以用先行语it作形式宾语,而将动词不定式(短语)后移作直接宾语

He found it necessary to work hard at English.

用于该形式的常见的动词有:acknowledge, believe, consider, count, declare, deem, deny, esteem, fancy, feel, find, guess, imagine, judge, know, make, prove, realize, report, see, show, suppose, suspect, take(think), understand, think.

We found it troublesome solving this problem.

We consider it worthwhile spending some time on this.

We enjoyed staying there.

常见的动词有:admit, abhor, acknowledge, advise, advocate, avoid, confess, consider, contemplate, defer, delay, deny, discontinue, excuse, evade, fancy, finish, imagine, include, involve, justify, keep(on), mind, necessitate, pardon, postpone, practise, renounce, resent, facilitate, favor, miss, resist.

He began learning (to learn) English at the age of five.

常见的动词有:start, like, hate, love, continue, prefer, commence, attempt, intend, propose, decline, endure, neglect, omit, recollect, recall, bear.

He insisted on doing that.

常见的短语有:stand up, leave off, put off, give up, can't help(stand)

He is about to leave. He did nothing but play.

'd rather do sth, 'd better do sth, 'd like/love to do sth, 

We saw him come in. I asked him to help me. 

I helped him (to) learn English.

He arranged for me to stay there.

常见的动词有:

1)省略不定式符号的动词:make, let, have,  see, hear, notice, watch, observe, listen to, look at

2)表示“致使”意义的动词:advice, cause, allow, ask, beg, drive, encourage, expect, forbid, force, get, intend, invite, permit, persuade, remind, teach, tell, trust, urge, want, warn

3)表示心理状态的动词:consider, declare find, prove, think, know, believe, discover, feel, imagine, judge, suppose, understand.

4)短语动词 arrange for, prepare for, provide for, ask for, care for, long for, wait for, vote for, call on, rely on, depend on, count on

We call this process testing.

We know of the earth behaving as a large magnet.

I found him coming in.

He kept him waiting outside.

如谓语动词是被动语态的形式,这时分词成了主语补语,分词形式不变。

表示动作已完成,同宾语是被动关系,说明动作在谓语动词表示的动作之前。

We found him tied to the tree.

I had my hair cut.

I can't get this motor started.

如谓语动词是被动语态的形式,这时分词成了主语补语,分词形式不变。

I hardly remember what I did besides read.

He had nothing in mind except to work hard.

It is better to do some work than to spend the time idly.

I'm afraid of making mistakes while speaking English.

He enjoys doing nothing but talking with her.

On (as soon as he arrived) arriving, he came to see his friend.

In (while) doing this, he learned a lot.

常见的短语:look forward to, be used to, object to, prefer doing sth to doing sth

I am glad to see you.

常见的形容词有:cross, angry, context, furious, happy, impatient, curious, proud, sorry, thankful, free, grateful, keen, anxio7us, eager, pone, ready, reluctant, willing, humble, jealous, miserable, (un)able, lucky,sad

 

I am surprised to see you.

常见的过去分词有:annoyed, ashamed, astonished, bored, concerned, amazed, confused delighted, determined, disappointed, disgusted, displeased, dissatisfied, distressed, embarrassed, excited, fascinated, inclined, overjoyed, overwhelmed, pleased, prepared, puzzled, qualified, worried, offended, scared, thrilled, vexed

The tree seems like trembling.

The book is worth reading.

To see is to believe. Seeing is believing.(一般同主语的形式一直)

What I wanted to do is write it down.

The only thing you can do is wait and see.

How am I to pay such a debt?

Such questions are to be avoided.

He was never to see his friend again.

What he said proved to be true.

He seems to be ill.

常作主语的名词有:aim, ambition, duty, hope, idea, intention, mistakes, plan, purpose, suggestion.

What like best is swimming in the sea.

My job is teaching English 

(My job is to teach them to learn English.)

Seeing is believing.

有时同不定式可以互换

Our duty is serving the people.

It is annoying that the meeting should be put off.

常见作表语的现在分词有:amusing, boring, charming, comforting, confusing, disappointing, discouraging, disturbing, embarrassing, exciting, pleasing, fascinating, interesting, inviting, missing, obliging, promising, puzzling, shocking, striking, surprising.

有时可用become ; get ;remain ; appear ; seem; fell; go; look等动词

He remained puzzled. He appeared satisfied with that.

My work is finished. My watch is gone.

常见的过去分词有:1)常见带介词about分词: annoyed, concerned, excited, pleased, puzzled, shocked, worried 2) 常见带介词at分词: amazed, amused, annoyed, astonished, delighted, disappointed, disgusted, displeased, dissatisfied, excited, offended, overjoyed, pleased, shocked, surprised, 3) 常见带介词against分词: arranged, prepared, irritated, arranged 4) 常见带介词for分词: celebrated, concerned, destined, disqualified, noted, prepared, pressed, qualified. 5) 常见带介词in分词: absorbed, celebrated, concerned, disappointed, delighted, dressed, embarrassed, engaged, entangled, experienced, interested lost, 6) 常见带介词on分词: founded, based, bent, set 7) 常见带介词to分词: abandoned, accustomed, acquainted, addicted, adapted, committed, dedicated, destined, devoted, doomed, engaged, entitled, exposed, known, lost, opposed, related, inclined, married 8) 常见带介词with分词:annoyed, bored, concerned, delighted, disappointed, discontented, disgusted, displeased, dissatisfied, equipped, excited, occupied, obsessed, pleased, pressed, satisfied, socked, stunned, surrounded loaded, tormented, torture

 

I have much work to do.

He has no place to live in.

 

He looked me with questioning eyes.

a living room. 

 

a sleeping boy, on the day following, for years running

表示被动的意思,多数不及物动词的过去分词不能用作定语,只有少数表示动作改变的动词表示在谓词动词动作之前完成

a lost child, a fallen leaf, retired workers, faded flowers

We have no time left. 

He is the first one to come this morning.

I have a lot of housework to do at home.

There is a lot of work to do in the company.

He didn't have the chance to go to school in the past.

agreement, attempt, claim, decision, decisive, determination, failure, hope, intention, need, plan, promise, refused, resolution, tendency, threat, wish

campaign, chance, courage, efforts, evidence, fight, news, measures, move, movement, opportunity, position, power, reason, right, skill, strength, struggle, means

ability, ambition, anxiety, curiosity, eagerness, impatience, reluctance, willingness

The bird singing in the tree is very beautiful.

This is the bird shot by the boy.

My brother, working in the south will be coming in a few days.

He went home to see his mother.

He came to ask a question.

He got up early in order to (so as to) have time to study.

She says so well as to bring down the house.

Will you be so good as to tell him this?

He is not old enough to do this. 

He laughed to see them fall down.

She opened her lips as through to speak

To hear him talk, you would think he was tiring.

He went through the papers while having breakfast.

Since leaving school, I met him only once.

表示原因,有时同用作时间状语的分词难以分清,相当于原因状语从句because, since, for 和 as。

Being ill, he didn't come.

Not understanding this, he asked the teacher about it.

Given more time, I can finish the work.

We'll not attack unless attacked.

Though warned of the danger, he still went skating on the thin ice.

Their car was caught in a traffic jam, thus causing the delay.

They shook hands, smiling at each other.

The children ran out of the room, laughing and talking merrily.

He lay on his back, his legs drawn up.

He made the boy sit there, promising they would not hurt him.

He has written two articles for the journal, one to be published in this issue, the other to come out in the next.

 

I saw many people in the room, some talking, some listening.

His chief hobby, sailing a boat, cost him most of his salary.


不定式

多是一些特定的短语

To tell you the truth, to be fair, to be frank, to be short, to be sure, to be honest, to begin with, to cut a long story short, to be exact, so to speak

To tell you the truth, I don' t know computers very well.

动名词

多是一些特定的短语

Generally speaking, frankly speaking, strictly speaking. 

Generally speaking, his work is successful.


for sb to do sth这种结构可用先行代词it作形式主语面将该结构后移作真正主语。

It is impossible for me to do this.

It is for you to decide.

It is time for us to do this.

There is a lot of work for us to do.

I'd like you to do it.

常引导该形式的形容词有:dangerous, easy, useful, hard, difficult, strange, astonishing, pleasant, fortunate lucky, necessary, reasonable, right, wrong, natural, interesting.

I feel quite easy, with her to help me.

 

It (That) is +形容词 of to do sth. 表示性格特征,行为表现。

It kind of you to help me.

常引导该形式的形容词有:absurd, bold, brave, careful, careless, cruel, considerate, clever, cunning, clumsy, decent, foolish, good, honest, impudent, naughty, nice, polite, right, rude, silly, splendid, wise, wrong, wonderful, thoughtful.

The king sent the official to have a look.

动名词之前的名词,如果是有生命的,通常用所属格表示,如果是无生命的,则用通格表示,现在有一种趋势用名词和代词代替所有格。

His coming won't help much.

I don't mind your (you) smoking.

They insisted on our staying there.

We are happy about his coming to see us.

Do you remember Mary coming to see you?

分词短语作状语时,一船没有自己的主语,其逻辑主语就是整个句子的主语,但有时分词短语可以有自己的主语,由名词和代词表示放在分词短语之前,它们存在着逻辑主谓关系

He stood there with his hand rising (raised).

We walked in, he leading the way.

Greeting being over, they got down to business.

He cried suddenly, tears rolling down his checks.

His leg being badly hurt, he had to sty in bed.

There being nobody in the room, we didn't go in.

Why stay in the room? Why not ask the teacher?

What about playing basketball?

To think how I started!

To invite him! You are asking for trouble.

Going to Beijing! What for?

What to do next has not been decided.

What worries me most is how to do it

I don't know how to leave.

We are seeking the way in which to make the work easy.

It is not yet decided whether to discuss this.

常见引导该形式的动词有:decide, find out, forget, inquire, know, learn, remember, see, settle, think, understand, wonder

Go shopping, (hunting, fishing, swimming, walking, dancing, skating, skiing)

Do some reading (shopping, sewing, washing)

1) admitting that…, supposing that…, provided (that)…, regarding, seeing that…, concerning that…, granted…, owing to dangle 

2) talking about…, judging from.. 

Judging from his clothes, he is a doctor.

I want not to go home. I let him not go home.

He promises never to go there again.

He got up early so as not to (in order not to) miss the train.

Not knowing this, he didn't come.

Not having told when to start, he came late.

No smoking. He left without saying good-bye

将来时

表示将要发生的动作和状态在英语中用将来时,将来时在英语中有多种表达形式,为了掌握它们的区别和用法,下面笔者对它们进行分类总结。

表示在将来某一时间会发生或经常发生的动作或存在的状态。可用于表示不以人们的意志为转移的事。

Tomorrow will be Sunday.

Tom will be 20 next year.

表示即将发生的事或最近打算进行的动作。多用于口语中,表示说话者的意图,推测和打算,可表示自然和生理现象。

I think it is going to rain. 

She is going to have a baby.

They are going to get married next week.

表示按计划和安排即将发生的动作。动词多是一些“来去”移动词,如:go, come, leave, start, move, sail, arrive, reach, stop, return, stay, drive, travel, remain, land等。

President is speaking on the air tonight.

He is leaving for Beijing tomorrow.

表示按计划,安排即将要发生的动作, 或征求对方的意见或表示命令。受人们的意志所支配。比较正式。

We are to turn out 10000 cars next year.

You are to take the trip.

 

表示根据规定或时刻预计要发生的动作或状态。一般有时间状语, 强调动作是不可改变的,动词多是那些表“来去”“起止”的动词,如:arrive, begin, close, come, depart, dine, end, go, leave, meet, open, part, stat, sail, stay, stop, return等,可用表状态的"be",表示年龄和日期。一般用于肯定句。

The plane leaves at six.

Tomorrow is Saturday.

I will be seeing him this morning.

I don't think I will be using that book next week.

 

They are about to leave.

 

 

偶然中相遇.有缘不容易.也许天注定.错过多可惜.明知相思苦.寸心难言尽 .金色阳光祝朋友平安快乐!

金色阳光的日志总导航 - 金色阳光 - .金色阳光的日志总导航 - 金色阳光 - .

金色阳光

  代 码 讲 解

金色阳光

  音  画  制  作  室

金色阳光

 日志装饰方法

金色阳光

多种链接导航

金色阳光

  电   脑   技   术

金色阳光

   精  美  边  框

金色阳光.

   多 款 欢 迎 栏

金色阳光

    我的百草园

金色阳光

  喜  庆  灯  笼

金色阳光

  养  生  健  身

金色阳光

 PS制作教程

金色阳光

  Flash 教 程

金色阳光

  精  美  图  片

金色阳光

  结  题  报  告

金色阳光

 高考满分作文

金色阳光

  教  育  教  学

金色阳光

 质 量 分 析

金色阳光

考试加油站

金色阳光

 教 学 总 结

金色阳光

 教 学 计 划

金色阳光

 子 女 教 育

金色阳光

 教 学 资 料

金色阳光

 初 中 试 题

金色阳光

 小 学 试 题

金色阳光

 高 中 试 题

金色阳光

 教 案 学 案

金色阳光

 说 课 反 思

金色阳光

高考作文题

  评论这张
 
阅读(168)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017