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英语被动语态知识归纳  

2012-07-21 09:27:20|  分类: 【英语语法】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 英语被动语态知识归纳


        英语中的被动语态使用得比汉语要多,要普遍,许多课本乃至实际应用中都常常涉及到这个问题。一般说来,当强调动作承受者,不必说出执行者或含糊不清的执行者时,多用被动式。须注意的是,许多地方与汉语不同。注意那些汉语中没有"被……"的意思,英语却应该用被动态。还要注意,英语的被动态往往由"by"引出,而有用介词"by"的短语往往又不是被动态,而是系表结构。还有些特殊现象,如:known to man(人类......所知),on foot步行(美国人有时用by foot),in carraige(乘四轮马车)等等。还有假主动,真被动的十几个常用词的用法,以及so heavy to carry而不用so heavy to be carried 等习惯用法。有关这类情况,做到心中有数对全面掌握被动态,准确无误地解答习题非常关键,被动态必须涉及的是动词的各种时态变化的问题。英语的时态本来很复杂,怎样记住各自的被动形式呢? 首先要明确"将来进行无被动,现在完成进行
同"。这两种时态无被动形式。
另外,不及物动词带有同源宾语的动词,反身代词的动词和系动词都无被动形式。即便如此,还有不定式,动名词,分词,以及它们的复合结构)的被动态,再加上情态动词,助动词以及它们的疑问式和否定式从中掺杂,真是令人头痛,眼花缭乱。下面口诀就以动词do为例,即do did过去式done过去分词,以口诀形式总结各种时态的被动态,一定对你有所启示。
被动语态(一般现在时)
主动语态变被动语态时,主动语态句中的宾语变成被动语态句中的主语,主动语态句中的主语成为被动语态句中的动作的发出者。
被动语态的口诀
一般现、过用be +PP(过去分词),be有人称、时、数变。
完成时态have(has) done,被动将been加中间。
一般将来shall (will) do,被动变do为be done。
将来进行无被动,shall (will) be doing,
现在完成进行同,have (has) been doing。
现、过进行be doing, 被动be加being done。
情、助、有、是妥安排,一律随新主语变。
否定助后加not,疑问一助置主前。
主语恰是疑问词,直陈语序主在前。
一般情助加be done,双宾多将间宾变。
复合宾语宾变主,宾补、主补相应变。
第二句"be有人称、时、数变"即be有人称、时态和单、复数的变化。"情助"是指情态动词和助动词must,may,can,shall,will等一律随新主语(多是主动句中的宾语)来变化。"疑问一助置主前"是说有两个助动词的话,应把主语放在第一助动词之后或把第一助动词置于主语之前。下面详细举例说明之。
一般现、过用be done, be有人称、时、数变
例:1、主动:The children gave the foreign guests a warm welcome.
被动:The foreign guests were given a warm welcome by the children.
孩子们热烈地欢迎外宾。
2、主动:People regard him as brilliant.
被动:He is regarded as brilliant by people.
人们认为他很有才华。
以上两例都是一般时态用be done的例子,be有人称、时、数变,第三人称foreign friends是复数,时态一般过去时,所以"be done"就是were given,而People regard him as brilliant一句,被动后的"be done"就变成单数第三人称is regarded的形式了。
被动:
This speech was delivered by comrade Wang. (was delivered即一般过去时的被动态)
这篇讲演是王的发言。
There was a serious train accident near the border. Two people were killed and twelve were injured.
边境发生严重列车事故,两人死亡,十二人受伤。
A person who is truly honest is called a straight arrow. 直言不讳的人才是真正诚实的人。
A note was passed up to the speaker. 有人给讲演者递上来一张纸条。
John was elected president of the class instead of Harry. 乔治被选为班长而代替了亨利。
Volcanoes are described as active, dormant or extinct. 火山被描述为活的,沉睡着的,或者死的。
The soldier was killed, but the train was saved. 这位战士牺牲了,然而列车得救了。
He was thought to be clever but dishonest. 他被认为很聪明但不诚实。(别人认为他很聪明但不诚实)
The first zoological garden in the United States was established in 1874. 美国的第一个动物园是1874年建立的。
Families were often broken up; wives were taken away from their husbands and children from their parents.
家庭被拆散,妻儿被夺走。
The information is urgently needed. 急需这个资料。
Most environmental problems exist because adequate measures for preventing them were not taken in the past. 多数环境污染问题的存在,是因为过去没有采取适当的保护措施。
完成时态have done,被动将been加中间。
(过去完成时had done也包括在内)。
例:1、主动:We have studied English for 3 years off and on at the spare-time school.
被动:English has been studied for 3 by us years off and on at the spare-time school. (have随新主语变为has)
我们已经在夜校里断断续续地学了三年英语了。
2、主动: They had produced 100 tractors by the end of last year.
被动: 100 tractors had been produced by the end of last year.
到去年年底我们已生产出一百台拖拉机。
3、主动:They have set up a power station in their home town.
被动:A power station has been set up in their home town.
他们的家乡建立了一座发电站。
4、主动:They have warned us to be careful of rats.
被动:We have been warned to be careful of rats.
他们已提醒我们要注意老鼠。
5、主动:People have piled plastic bags full of rubbish in streets.
被动: Plastic bags full of rubbish have been piled in streets.
人们把装满垃圾的塑料袋子堆放在街上。
6、主动:We have used nuclear energy to produce electricity.
被动:Nuclear energy has been used to produce electricity.
核能已用来发电。
7、主动:No one has ever beaten him at tennis.
被动:He has never been beaten at tennis.
就网球来说还没有人是他的对手。
(No one涉及到全否定和部分否定问题,见否定一讲)
The person who owns the gun may try to deny that he has used it. But anyone seeing the smoke knows the gun has just been fired.
有枪的人会极力否认他开了枪。但是任何看到枪烟(枪冒的烟)的人都会知道刚才开了枪。
Today is Cilia's wedding day, she has just been married to Danel.
今天是西丽亚的新婚日,她刚刚和丹尼尔结婚。
The subjects of these lectures have been announced by the lecture committee.
演讲委员会已宣布了这些讲演的题目。
过去完成时也是一样:
主动: Somebody had cleaned my shoes.
被动: My shoes had been cleaned by somebody.
有人早已把我的鞋子擦了。
When I returned I found that they had towed (toud) my car away, I asked why they had done this and they told me that id was because I had parked it under a "No Parking Sign".
被动:my car had been towed away. I asked why this had been done and told that ... it had been parked under a "No Parking Sign".
当我回来时,发现我的车被弄走了。我问他们为啥这么于。他们告诉我说因为我把车于停在"禁止停车"的禁区。
主动:They had build three ships by last December.
被动: By last December three ships had been built by them.
到去年年底他们已建造了三艘船。
Research had been centred on the improvement of natural building materials before synthetics were created.
合成材料造出之前,研究工作集中在改进天然建筑材料上。
He did not say if all those steel pipes had been examined.
他并没有说那些钢管都检验过没有。
After plastic had been created, engineers were given a much wide choice of materials.
塑料发明之后,工程师们在材料选择上有了更广阔的途径。
一般将来shall (will) do,被动变do为be done
即由shall do或will do变为shall done或will be done。
例:主动: We shall build several big modern power plants in our city next year.
被动:Several big modern power plants will be built in our city next year.
过年我市将建立几座大型现代化的发电厂。
(shall do中的shall要随新主语变为will, do为be done.)
主动:I shall send my second boy to school next September.
被动:My second boy will be sent to school next September.
过年九月我将送我次子去读书。
主动:In order to fool people cheaps and swindlers will make such bricks out of lead covering the "lead brick" with gold.
被动:Such bricks will be made out of lead covering the "lead brick" with gold by cheaps and swindlers.
"铅砖"外面被设法骗钱的商人和骗子们镀上一层金来做这样的"金砖"。
主动:They will ask you a lot of strange questions.
被动: You will be asked a lot of strange questions.
他们将问你许多怪题。
被动句中的by引出的宾语,一般说来,如果是人称代词你、我、他等,均可省略,someone no one不由by来引出。如果是名词不能省略,但当今英语也都可省略了。
主动:The Chinese people will make more space explorations in the future.
被动:More space explorations will be made in the future by the Chinese people.
中国人民在将来将进行更多的空间探索。
同样
After a period of use, the batteries should be changed. 电池使用一段时间后,应该更换。
Usually, the electricity is on for 24 hours. But tomorrow it will be cut off in the day time. 通常是昼夜供电,明天白天将停电。
More peaceful uses will be found for nuclear explosives in the future. 在将来会发现更多的和平利用核爆炸的途径。
More hard work will be needed to make this wonder come true in a short time from now. 从现在起要使这些奇迹在短时间内成为现实还需要做更多的艰苦工作。
make...come true 使……成为事实; come true做宾补(见感使动词口诀)。
The machine will not be used again. 这机器不能再用了。
Will more gas be needed? 需要更多的煤气吗?
但如果是一般过去将来时如何处理呢?请记下面口诀:
一般过去将来时,过去某时将发生。
主动should (would) do,被动be done代原形。
将来进行无被动,现在完成进行同。
主动:A few days ago we were still not quite sure whether we should carry out the new plan ahead of time.
被动:...whether the new plan would be carried out ahead of time.
几天前,我们还不能肯定能否提前执行新的计划。
主动:I did not say that we would change the equipment.
被动:I did not say that the equipment would be changed.
我并没说过,我们将换掉那台设备。
主动:My supervisor told me that he would give me a special tutorial a few days ago.
被动:My supervisor told me that a special tutorial would be given to me a few days ago.
几天前,我的导师说他将对我进行个别辅导。
主动: I never thought that be would bring me the information so early.
被动:I never thought that the information would be brought to me so early.
我决没想到他那么早就会把资料带给我。
将来进行无被动,shall (will) be doing,
现在完成进行同.have (has) been doing,
即将来进行时表示动作在将来某一时刻或某个阶段正在进行'现在完成进行时表示某-行为发生在过去.延续到现在,可能还要延续下去。两种时态则不用被动语态。


 

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