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新课标英语语法讲练十八:连 词  

2012-04-02 13:01:53|  分类: 【教学资料】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 新课标英语语法讲练十八:连  词

 

连词分为并列连词和从属连词两大类。并列连词是连接主语与主语,谓语与谓语,句子与句子,分词与分词的词,它要求前后两部分有相同的形式和语法作用;而从属连词一般连接主句与从句,从句形式有名词性从句,定语从句和状语从句等。
(一)并列连词:
 并列连词可用来连接词与词,词组与词组,分句与分句。常用的并列连词有:and(和),as well as(既…又),both … and(不但…而且),not only … but also(不但…而且),not … but(不是…而是),neither … nor(既不…也不),either … or(不是…就是),or(或者),but (但是),yet(然而),for(因为),so(所以),while(而),when(这时)等。如:Both my brother and my sister are teachers./ His room is bright but mine is gloomy(暗沉沉的)./ He can not only repair radios but also fix them./ It is a glorious(光荣的)yet difficult task./ Strike while iron is hot.
(二)从属连词
 从属连词是指在复合句中引导从句的连结词。常见的从属连词有:
 引导时间状语从句的:after, before, when, as, while, since, until, till, as soon as
 引导原因状语从句的:because, since, as
 引导让步状语从句的:although, though, no matter(无论), even if (though)
 引导条件状语从句的:if, unless, once, so (as) long as
 引导结果状语从句的:so … that …, such … that …
 引导目的状语从句的:so that …, in order that …
 引导比较状语从句的:as … as …, not so (as) … as …, … than …
 引导方式状语从句的:as if …
 引导主语,宾语或表语从句的连词主要有:that, whether, if三个。其中that 和whether间或还可以引起同位从句和状语从句。
(三)某些用法比较特殊的从属连词用法区别
 1、当while, when, as引导时间状语从句时的区别:①while引导的状语从句中动词必须是持续性。谓语动词多为进行时,或状态动词的一般时。while 的这些用法可用when代替,等于 “at the time that”, “during the time that”。例如:Please keep quiet while (when) others are studying;② when除可指一段时间外,还可用来指一点时间,等于 “at the time”,也就是说when引出的时间状语从句中的谓语动词可以是终止性的,也可以延续性的。因此主句和从句的谓语可以是一般时,进行时,或完成时。例如:When I went into the lab, the teacher was doing an experiment.(when不能换成while)He often makes mistakes when he is speaking English.(when可换成while)③as常可与when,while通用,但强调“一边、一边”。例如:As (when, while) I was walking down the street, I noticed a police car in front of number 37. ④when引导的状语从句中的主语与主句主语一致,主、谓是“主语+系动词”结构时,这时主语和系动词可以省略。例如:When (he was) young, he worked for a rich man./ She’ll be here to give you help when (if it is) necessary. ⑤when有时代替if,引导条件句,意为“如果”、“假如”,例如:I’ll come when (if) I’m free.
 2、before作连词一般表示时间,意为“在…之前”,但有些句子中这样译就显得别扭。试看以下句子的翻译:He almost knocked me down before he saw me.他几乎把我撞倒才看见我;Before I could get in a word he had measured me.我还没来得及插话,他已经给我量好了尺寸。
 3、till, until作为介词式从属连词引导时间状语短语或状语从句,用于否定句时,结构为not …until (till),主句谓语动词延续与非延续皆可,意为“直到…才…”。用于肯定句时,只与延续性动词连用,表示“到…为止”。例如:They played volleyball until (till) it got dark./ They didn’t talk(延续性动词)until (till) the interpreter(译员)came./ He didn’t go to bed(非延续性动词)until (till) the his father came back.;until可以放在句首,till则不行,例如:Until the last minute of the match we kept on playing./ Not until he finished his work did he go home.(倒装);till, until只用于时间,以下句子是错误的:We walked till the edge of the forest.(要用as far as或to)。
 4、because, since, as引导原因状语时注意使用上的区别:①如果原因构成句子的最主要部分,一般用because ,因此because引导的从句往往放在句末。用why提问的句子,一定用because回答。例如:He had to stay at home yesterday because he was ill.;②如原因已为人们所知,或不如句子的其他部分重要,就用as,或 since。since比as更正式些。as和since引导的从句一般放在句子的开头。例如:As you are tired, you had better rest./ Since everyone is here, now let’s begin.
 5、although和though引导让步状语从句往往用法一样,但注意以下区别:①although用于各种文体,而though则多用于非正式的口语或书面语中。注意由although, though引导的从句后,主句不能用but,但可用副词yet, still。例如:Although/ Though it rained all the morning, they still went on working.(或yet they went on working)②though常与even连用,even though表示强调,意为“即使”,但不能说even although,例如:Even though I didn’t understand a word, I dept smiling. ③though可用作副词,意为“然而”,常用逗号与句子分开。although则不能这样使用,它只作连词。例如:It was a quiet party, I had a good time, though.
 6、once作副词译“曾经”,作为连词译“一旦”,引导条件状语从句。相当于if的加强形式。例如:I don’t believe he was once a thief. (once这里是副词)/ Once Aristotle had made up his mind that heavy objects always fell faster than light objects, he taught it as a truth to his students. (once连词)
 7、unless引导条件状语从句等于if … not …。例如:He’ll accept the job unless the salary is too low. ( = He’ll accept the job if the salary is not too low.)
 8、在用as if引导的方式状语从句及表语从句中,根据情况要使用虚拟语气。例如:He talks as if he knew all about it. 但有时也可用直陈语气。例如:It looks as if it is going to rain.
 9、whether, if引导从句的用法区别:①引导主语从句、表语从句或同位语从句时,用whether,不用if。例如:Whether they will go to the Great Wall is not known./ The question is whether we can finish the task on time./ The question whether we will take part in the physics contest has not been decided. ②whether可接不定式,而if则不可。例如:I haven’t decided whether to leave or not. ③whether可作介词的宾语或置于句首表示强调,而if则不可。例如:Everything depends on whether we have enough money./ Whether he will come, I am not sure. ④whether和if均可引导宾语从句, whether引导的宾语从句一般都是肯定句,if引导的宾语从句可以是肯定的,也可以是否定的(此时不能用whether),例如:Could you tell us whether/ if it rains in winter in Australia?/ I wonder if it doesn’t rain. ⑤引导宾语从句的whether和if常可与or not连用。连用时要注意or not的位置,它一般与 whether、if分开使用,有时它可与whether合起来使用,但不能与if合起来使用。例如:I don’t know whether/ if they will come or not./ I don’t know whether or not they will come. ⑥if可用来引导条件状语从句,译“如果”,whether则不行。例如:If you work hard, you are sure to succeed.
 10、as作从属连词可引导多种状语从句。①as引导时间状语从句,意为“当…时”。例如:As (he was) a young man, he was a storekeeper and later a postmaster./ He sang as he worked.  ②as引导方式状语从句,意为“象…一样”。例如:We must do as the Party teaches us. ③as引导原因状语从句。意为“由于”,例如:As you are tired, you had better rest. ④as引导让步状语从句。意为“虽然”、“尽管”Child as he is, he can do it well. ( = Although he is a child, he can do it well.) 另外,as做为关系代词还可以引导定语从句,如:I have the same book as you.
练习、连词
1 .He is very old,____ he still works very hard.   A. but       B.if       C.when        D.as
2. ____ you are dismissed.
A. Neither you go nor  B. Either you go or   C. Whether you go or   D. Both you go and
3. They had camped once before, ____ they knew what to take.
A. because       B. now           C. so            D. since
4. Why these things happened was ____ the driver had been careless.
A. because of     B. owing to  C. due to        D. that
5. Although, it's raining, ____are still working in the fields.
A. they           B. but they       C. and they  D. so they
6.___we have satisfied you, you have no grounds of complaint.
A. So           B. Since that      C. Now that     D. By now.
7. Write clearly ____ your teacher can understand .you correctly.
A. since         B. for            C. because  D. so that
8.You'll miss the train ____ you hurry up.  A. unless    B. as     C. if     D. until
9. Francis did the task____ his brother.  A. as good as   B. as better as   C. as well as  D. as best as
10.The size of the audience,____ we had expected, was well over twenty thousand.
A. as           B. what         C. that         D. whom
11.I thought he hated the TV .You are right,____ he still watches the program.
A. yet           B. besides       C. also          D. then
12. It looks ____ it's going to rain.   A. that     B. as     C. as if     D. like that
13.____ to New York, her father has not heard from her.
A. Because she went    B. After she went  C. When she went   D. Since she went
14.___he daydreamed, Peter saw figures in the sky.  A. Until  B. Since  C. While  D. During
15. We arrived at the station ____ the train had left. A. after   B. before   C. since   D. when
16.____ he was in poor health, he worked just as hard as everyone else.
A. But           B. Although       C. Even if        D. If
17. Give me one more minute ____ I'll have finished.  A. so   B. until   C. and    D. when
18. The worker hunted for jobs in New York for months,____ he could not find any work.
A. and           B. yet           C. or            D. and but
19. Hurry up, ____ you'll be late.  A. or         B. and             C. so          D. yet
20. Do not make the same mistake ____ I did.  A. so       B. as      C. like      D. that
21. My sister is expecting me,____ I must be off now.   A. however  B. or   C. so    D. otherwise
22. We should pay attention ____ to industry ____ to agriculture.
A. either, or      B. neither, nor     C. not, but        D. both, and
23. He ran off____ I could stop him.  A. before       B. after      C. since      D. when
24.____ you told me, I had heard nothing of what happened.  A.  Till  B. Until  C. After   D. Since
25. Where have you been ____ you left home?  A. before     B. as    C. since    D. when
26.____ the problem of method is solved, talking about the task is useless.
A. Until    B. Since    C. After    D. Unless
27. We have produced 15% more cotton this year____ we did last year.
A. as             B. than              C. like               D. white
28.It is late; ____, I'm too tired to go out. A. besides   B. except   C. except for   D. except that
29. Everything around us is ____ solid ..liquid ____ gas.
A. not .. .but...      B. either.. .or...  C. neither.. .nor...    D. whether.. .or...
30. He will come ____ you ask him.  A. whether      B. unless     C. if     D. while
31.____ he will come or not is still unknown. A. If    B. Where     C. That     D. Whether
32.I don' t know ____ to stay at home or go out.   A. whether     B. if      C. how    D. where
33. He spoke loudly ____ the audience could hear him clearly.
A. so             B. that            C. so that             D. in order to
34. The book is not easy.____ it's rather difficult.
A. On the one hand         B. On the contrary 
C. On the other hand         D. On the other contrary
35. You must work hard,____ you will not learn English well.
A. if             B. whether          C. otherwise         D. unless
36. It rained heavily,____ the basketball match had to be put off.
A. so that         B. when           C. otherwise          D. therefore
37. We must do ____ the people want us to do..
A. whatever       B. however          C. wherever         D. whenever
38. You are certainly right,____ others may say.  A. what  B. whatever   C. that    D. as
39.____ makes mistakes must correct them.  A. Who  B. What   C. Whoever  D. Whatever
40.I’ll discuss it with you ____ you like to come. 
A. when       B. where      C. whoever     D. whenever
41.____ you work, you must always serve the people heart and soul.
A. Wherever      B. Whenever         C. Where           D. When
42.___you understand this rule, you will have no further difficulty.
    A. Once         B. At once           C. Only             D. Only then
43.___ difficult the task may be, we must fulfil it this month.
A. No matter how B. No matter what       C. No matter when   D. No matter where
44. We can surely overcome these difficulties _,___ we are closely united.
A. so far as         B. so long as        C. as soon as         D. as well as
45.___ I know he will stay here for half a year.
A. as soon as      B. as long as         C. so far as           D. as well as
46. Please write me ____ you arrive in New York.
A. as well as      B. so long as         C. as far as           D. as soon as
47. That is not ____ I want.  A. that      B. why       C. what       D. whose
48. ___ he did it remains a secret.  A. What       B. Whom       C. Which       D. How
49. It is quite clear ____ he won't see us. A. what       B. that       C. why      D. how
50. Would you tell me ____ way I should take?   A. what      B. that     C. which    D. whose
51. I am sure ____ you said is true.  A. what       B. that      C. which     D. who
52. The trouble is ____ we can not find such an expert.
A. why              B. that             C. where          D. /
53. It has not been decided ____ they will leave.
A. why              B. when             C. which             D. what
54. We shall go ____ you are ready.   A. while     B. as soon as      C. as       D. since
55. He will tell you about it ____ you get there.  A. while      B. as      C. when      D. /
56. Don't try to get off the bus ____ it has stopped.
A. while             B. as                C. since             D. before
57. I'll come and see you _____ I go to the countryside.
A. while             B. when          .   C. as soon as         D. before
58. ___ he came to study in the university, he has made much progress in the study of English.
A. While             B. When             C. Since             D. After
59. Things have changed a lot ____ I wrote to you last time.
A. when             B. since              C. as                D. before
60. I can't use your pen, ___ there is no ink in it.  A. for    B. when   C. if    D. whether 
61. I'd like to go swimming ____ the water is not too cold.
A. for               B. unless             C. if                D. whether
62. Difficulties are nothing ___ we are not afraid of them.
A. for               B. as                C. if                D. whether
63. The doctor will not perform the operation ___ it is absolutely necessary.
A. when             B. if                 C. for               D. unless
64. Go back ___ you came from.    A. until       B. where       C. which        D. when
65. He lay ___ the grass was the thickest.   A. where     B. when    C. that       D. after
66. You will find friendly people ___ you go in China.
A. where             B. and               C. wherever          D. so
67. ___ it was already dark, they went on working in the fields.
A. If                B. Whether           C. But               D. Though
68. ___ he has finished writing the novel is unknown. 
A. If        B. Whether     C. When       D. While
69. We'll go and see the patient ___we are busy.  
A. even if       B. for          C. if          D. while
70. The museum is ___ far ____ it will take us half an hour to get there by bus.
A. such... that        B. as...as         C. so...that           D. so … as
连 词
1~5 ABCDA 6~10 CDACA 11~15 ACDBA 16~20 BCBAB 21~25 CDABC
26~30 BBABC 31~35 DACBC 36~40 AABCD 41~45 AAABC 46~50 DCDBC
51~55 ABBBC 56~60 DDCBA 61~65 CCDBA 66~70 CDBAC
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