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新课标语法讲练十九:冠 词  

2012-04-02 13:03:40|  分类: 【教学资料】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 新课标语法讲练十九:冠  词


(一)考纲要求
 考纲规定,冠词考查基本用法,包括定冠词与不定冠词,不定冠词a与an的区别;不用冠词的情况;习语中的冠词;特指与泛指等。
(二)命题导向
冠词规则的灵活运用是高考命题的一个热点,几乎每年高考题的单项选择或完形填空都有涉及冠词的题目,不定冠词和定冠词的一些特殊用法,习惯用法及不用冠词的情况是高考重点考查的知识点。
(三)基本用法
 当代语法把冠词分为不定冠词、定冠词和零冠词(即不用冠词)三种。冠词是一种虚词,起限定作用,是最主要最典型的限定词,放在名词(或名词化的形容词分词)前面,说明其所指的人或物。
 1、定冠词的基本用法:
 ① 表示上文提到过的人或事物。如:I have bought a book. The book is very useful.
② 用于说话人与听话人心中都有数的人或事物。如:Close the window, please.
③ 用于表示世界上独一无二的事物前。如:the sun, the moon, the earth, the world等。
④ 用于表示方位的名词之前。如:the east, the right.
⑤ 用于序数词或形容词的最高级之前。如:the first, the tallest.
⑥ 用于形容词之前,使其名词化。如:the sick, the wounded.
⑦ 用于由普通名词构成的专有名词之前。如:the United States, the United Nation.
⑧ 用于江河、海洋、海峡、山脉、群岛、建筑物等的名词之前。如:the Changjiang River, the East Lake.
⑨ 用于复数姓氏之前,表示“夫妇”或“全家”。如:The Smiths
⑩ 用于乐器的名词前。如:play the piano; play the violin.
⑾ 发明物。如:The compass was invented in China.
⑿ 年代名词前。如:He lived in the countryside in the 1970s.
  ⒀ 固定词组中。如:in the morning(afternoon, evening), on the other hand , at the same time
2、不定冠词的基本用法:
① 泛指一个。如:There is a book on the table.
② 指人或事物的某一种类。如:His father is a driver.  Longjing is a wonderful tea.
③ 指某一个人或事物,但不具体说明。如:My sister was saved by a PLA man in the fire.
④ 用于某一些表示重量、长度、时间等单位前,表示“每一”。如:We have meals three times a day.(我们一天吃三餐。)
⑤ 表示同样的。如:They are of an age.(他们是同岁。)
⑥ 表数量,相当于one,但语意较弱。如:There is a pen and two books on the desk.
  ⑦ 使抽象名词具体化。如:The little girl is a help to her mother. (a hand译"帮手")
  ⑧ 固定搭配。如:as a matter of fact , in a hurry, in a word
3、不用冠词的情况:
① 表示总称的复数名词之前。如:Children love cartoons.(儿童喜欢卡通影片。)
② 不含普通名词的专有名词前。如:We are studying English.
③ 名词前有指示代词、物主代词、不定代词或名词所有格修饰时。如:I like this picture; I do not have any money; As time went on, Einstein’s theory proved to be correct.
④ 季节、月份、星期等名词前,一般不用冠词。如:She likes spring most.
⑤ 呼语前不用冠词。如:What shall I do next, Mother?
⑥ 三餐饭前不用冠词。如:What did you have for lunch?
⑦ 节假日前不用冠词。如:People give gifts to each other on Christmas Day.
⑧ 球类和棋类运动的名称前不用冠词。如:She is fond of playing basketball.
⑨ 在一些成对出现的短语中不用冠词。如:arm in arm(手挽手); hand in hand(手牵手); side by side(肩对肩); day and day(日日夜夜); young and old(老老少少); from door to door(挨门挨户); from beginning to end(从头到尾); from morning till night(从早到晚)等。
练习(一)、冠  词
1. In America, ____ car is ____ popular means of transportation(交通设施).
 A. the, the  B. a, the   C. the, /   D. the, a
2. ---- What happened?  ---- They left in such ____ hurry that they forgot to lock ____ door.
 A. a, a   B. a, the   C. /, the   D. /, a
3. There were two small rooms in the house, ____ smaller of which served as ____ kitchen.
 A. a, the   B. the, a   C. the, the  D. a, a
4. I ordered ____ book some time ago. ____ book has arrived.
 A. a, The   B. the, A   C. a, A   D. /, The
5. Mr Smith is ____ European and his wife is ____ American.
 A. an, an   B. a, a   C. a, an   D. an, a
6. Lesson 10 is ____ most difficult lesson, but it isn’t ____ most difficult lesson in Book One.
 A. a, a   B. a, the   C. the, the  D. the, a
7. My sister works in a factory. She goes home once ____ month.  A. a B. an C. the D. every
8. He was absent because he had caught ____.
 A. heavy a cold B. the heavy cold C. a heavy cold  D. heavy cold
9. ____ water is ____ liquid.  A. The, a  B. A, a  C. /, /  D. /, a
10. In winter ____ people often hang up wet clothes near ____ fire.
 A. /, /   B. a, a   C. /, a   D. the, a
11. He has tried twice, and the captain asks him to have ____ third try.
 A. a    B. the   C. another  D. other
12. He was a top student in the class, he often got ____ in English.
 A. first   B. a first   C. second   D. the second
13. ____ horse is ____ useful animal.  A. The, the B. The, a  C. The, an D. /, a
14. Tom left Shanghai in ____.
 A. the summer 1995 B. summer 1995 C. 1995 the summer D. the summer of 1995
15. ____ children here live ____ most happy life.  A. The, the B. The, a  C. The, / D. /, the
16. The soldier died during ____ World War I.  A. the B. the first C. /  D. a
17. In ____ Marx began to learn Russian.
 A. a 1870   B. 1870s   C. the year of 1870  D. the 1870s
18. Alice is ____ of the two girls.  A. taller  B. the tall  C. more tall D. the taller
19. ---- Can your sister play ____?  ---- No, but she can play ____.
 A. the tennis, the piano B. tennis, piano C. the tennis, piano  D. tennis, the piano
20. The introduction is always in ____ of a book.  
A. front   B. the front  C. a front     D. instead
21. She touched her daughter gently ____ shoulder.
 A. in her   B. on her   C. in the   D. on the
22. Both ____ wounded and ____ sick were sent to safety.
 A. /, /   B. the, the  C. /, the   D. the, /
23. ____ doctors and ____ nurses should care for their patients.
 A. The, the  B. /, /   C. The, /   D. /, the
24. Tell us the story as ____ Mother told you.   A. a  B. the C. an D. /
25. Do you know how long ____ has lived on the earth? 
A. man   B. the man  C. a man   D. men
26. The man was once thrown into ____ prison for robbing the bank.   A. a  B. an   C. the   D./
27. ____ Mount Tai is in the east of China.  A. A  B. The C. /  D. That
28. I like ____ history. I am studying ____ history of China.
 A. the, /   B. /, the   C. a, /   D. /, a
29. He wrote a letter ____ pencil.  A. with  B. in   C. in a  D. use a
30. On October 1, the Chinese people celebrated ____ with new achievements and victories.
 A. National Day B. the National Day  C. our National Day D. a National Day
 
练习(二)、冠  词
1. ---You mean you know the man?   ---I know________ man exactly like him.
   A. other    B. the     C. /     D. a
2. Wouldn't it be_________ wonderful world if all nations live in ________peace with one another?
   A. a, /    B. the, /    C. a, the   D. the, the
3. ---I hear that as many as 1,500 people were killed in the earthquake.
 ---Yes, ________ news came as ________ shock to us.
   A. a, a    B. the, a    C. /, /     D. /, a
4. At midnight they reached ________ small village ________ east of ______ Everwhite Mountain.
   A. a,/, the    B. a,/, /    C. the, the, the  D. the, an, an
5. Nanjing lies on ________ Changjiang River and has ________ population of more than four million.
   A. the, the   B. the, /    C. the, a   D. /, a
6. Bill Clinton took ________ office on January 20th, 1993 and left ________ office on January 20th, 2001.
   A. /, /    B. his, his    C. the, the   D. an, his
7. We learn to go all out to work for ____ good of ____ society.
   A. the, /    B. /, /     C. /, a     D. the, the
8. Paris is ____ most beautiful city, where you can see ____ famous Eiffel Tower.
   A. a, the    B. a, /     C. the, a   D. the, the
9. ---What about ____ bike? ---Do you think it all right to buy him ____ bike as ____ birthday present?
   A. the, the, the  B. a, the, a    C. the, a, the  D. the, the, a
10. He had decided to give it up, but on ____ second thoughts he decided to try ____ third time.
   A. the, a    B. /, /     C. a, a    D. /, a
11. Towards ____ morning, ____ heavy rain began to fall.
   A. the, a    B. a, a    C. the, /    D. the, /
12. ---Excuse me, where are ____ books for biology?
  ---Follow me. They' re on this shelf. Do you want ____ new or used book?
   A. a, a    B. a, the    C. the, a    D. the, the
13. Young as he is, David has gained ____ rich experience in ____ society.
   A. /, /    B. the, the    C. a, /     D./, the
14. ---My son is lost. Did you see a boy passing by?
  ---I saw ____ boy hidden behind ____ tree over there. You may go and have a look.
   A. a, a    B. the, the    C. a, the   D. the, a
15. Mary climbed to the top of the mountain in ____ hurry, looked down and found in ____ surprise that ____ whole town took on a new look.
   A. a, the, the   B. a,/,the    C. /,/,the    D. /,/,a
16. In ____ old society many young women died by so curious and cruel ____ custom.
   A. an, a    B. /, the    C. the, a    D. the, /
17. ---You' re sure to help me find ____ bed for my new house?
  ---Sure, but not now. I'm he

 

 

 

 

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