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虚拟语气语法讲解  

2012-04-02 13:14:21|  分类: 【教学资料】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 虚拟语气语法讲解

 

 

虚拟语气

英语句子中谓语动词的语气有三种:
1. 直陈语气(The Indicative Mood)直陈语气用于直截了当地陈述事实、描述状态:
He has published quite a number of essays this year .他今年已发表了好几篇论文
2. 祈使语气(The Imperative Mood)
祈使语气用于提出请求、命令、建议或是劝告等:
Wait outside until you are asked . 请在外面等候,请你进再进去。
Let's just take a break, shall we ? 我们休息一会儿,好吗?
3. 虚拟语气(The Subjunctive Mood)
虚拟语气用于表示主观愿望和假设的虚拟情况。虚拟语气不太顾及事实的存在,它表现出说话人的主观因素比较多。所以说话人所讲的内容往往是与事实相反的;或是其实现的可能性微乎其微,甚至于没有实现的可能性。当然,有时为了使说话的语气客气、缓和、委婉,也使用虚拟语气。例如:
I wish you were more careful .但愿你更细心一些。
If I had more money, I would buy a bigger apartment.
我要是有再多一点钱,我就买一套更大一些房子。
Would you mind shutting the door ? 劳驾您把门关上。

一、虚拟语气在条件状语从句中的构成和用法

1. 表示一种与过去事实相反的假设情况,条件从句中的谓语动词要用“had+过去分词”,主句中的谓语动词要用“would / should / could / might+have+过去分词”。如: If you had come here yesterday, you would have seen him. 如果你昨天来到这里,你就会看见他了。 2. 表示一种与目前事实相反的假设情况,条件状语从句中的谓语动词要用一般过去式(be动词常用were),而主句中的谓语动词则要用“would / should / could / might+动词原形”。如: If I had his telephone number, I would call him now. 如果我有他的电话号码,我现在就打电话给他。 If I were you, I would not tell him that. 如果我是你,我就不把那件事告诉他。 3. 表示与将来的事实可能相反的假设情况时,条件状语从句中的谓语动词要用:1) should+动词原形,或2) 一般过去式,或3) were+不定式,主句中的谓语动词要用“would+动词原形“。如: If it snowed tomorrow, many crops would die of cold. = If it were to snow tomorrow, many crops would die of cold. = If it should snow tomorrow, many crops would die of cold. 如果明天下雪,许多庄稼都会冻死。 4. 有时候,条件和结果不是指同一个时间,这时,应根据上面谈到的几种情况,使用相应的形式,这种虚拟语气形式被称为错综虚拟语气。如: If you had listened to the teacher carefully yesterday, you would know how to do the exercise now. 如果你昨天认真听了老师的讲话,你现在就知道如何做这道题了。 5. 使用虚拟语气时,有时候可以省略引导条件状语从句的连词if。这时,从句部分要使用部分倒装,即将从句部分的助动词were / had / should等提到主语前面。如: Were I you, I would not tell him that. Should it snow tomorrow, many crops would die of cold. Had you listened to the teacher carefully yesterday, you would know how to do the exercise now. 二、含蓄性条件句

在表示假设的虚拟语气中,有时假设的条件并不以条件从句的形式出现,而是通过上下文或句中内在的逻辑关系,或用其它形式表达出来,这就是“含蓄条件句”。常用的有以下四种: 1. 介词短语常用来表示虚拟条件的介词有without, with, in, under, but for等,他们表示的虚拟条件都可以被if从句替换。 1) without, with without表示否定的条件,意为if…not;with与without意义相反,表示肯定的条件。如: Without air (= If there were no air) , there would be no living things. 如果没有空气,就不会有生物。 With his help (= If I had her help), I would do the experiment well. 如果有他的帮助,我会做好这个实验。 2) under 如: Under the leadership of a less experienced person (= If there had been the leadership of a less experienced person), the experiment would have failed. 要是一个没有经验的人领导,这个实验就失败了。 3) in 如: I would have lost my head in that position (in that position = if I had been in that position) 我处在那种情况下,是会丧失理智的。 4) but for (如果没有) 如: But for their help (= If it were not for their help), we could not get over the difficulties. 要不是他们的帮助,我们是克服不了这些困难的。 2. 连接词or / otherwise (否则,要不然), but, but that (要不是) 如: He felt very tired yesterday, or he would have attended the party. 他昨天很累,不然他就参加那个聚会了。 He was having a meeting, otherwise he would have come over to help us. 他当时正在开会,否则他就会来帮助我们了。 I should have returned the book last week, but I was so busy that I forgot to do so. 我本来应该在上周归还那本书的,但我太忙了,把这件事给忘了。 But that you had seen me in the water, I would have drowned. 要不是你看见我掉在水里,我早就被淹死了。 3. 分词短语 如: United (= If they had been united), they wouldn’t have been defeated. 他们要是团结起来,就不会被打败。 Seen from a high mountain (= If it were seen from a high mountain), the field in which wheat is growing would look like a great green sea. 倘若从高山上看,麦田就像一片碧绿的大海。 4.“名词+and”结构 如: One step further and you would be dead. (= If you took one step further, you would be dead.) 再往前走一步,你就会死。 三、虚拟语气在名词性从句中的应用

虚拟语气有时可用于主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句中,下面分别加以说明。 1. 主语从句 

在主语从句中用以表示惊奇、惋惜、理应如此等意,其谓语用should +动词原形,should 在口语中可省略。主要用于以下三种结构: 1)Itis necessary/important/natural / strange/essential /advisable/desirable/urgent …+that... 如: It is necessary that he (should) get everything ready by tomorrow evening. 到明天晚上前把一切准备好是必要的。 It is important that you (should ) read English aloud every morning. 你们每天早上朗读英语很重要。 2) It is a pity (a shame, no wonder...)+that... 如: It is a pity that she (should )be so careless. 她这么粗心真是遗憾。 It is no wonder that they (should) go there by air. 难怪他们要坐飞机到那里去。 3) It is suggested( decided, ordered, requested, desired, demanded, required, proposed, recommended) that ...如: It is requested that that factory (should) stop polluting the river. 要求那家工厂停止对那条河的污染。 It is decided that the sports meet (should) be put off till next week. 已决定运动会推迟到下星期。 2. 宾语从句

1) 在表示命令、建议、劝告、欲望、要求、主张这一类动词后的宾语从句中,从句应用虚拟语气,其谓语用should+动词原形,should可省略,这类动词有suggest, insist, demand, request, desire, order, ask, advise, propose , command, recommend, require等,如: The teacher insisted that we (should) use an English-English dictionary. 老师坚持要我们使用英英词典。 I suggest the invitation to the conference (should) be sent to Dr Baker. 我建议给贝克博士发出出席的邀请。 2) wish 后的宾语从句要用虚拟语气,表示不能实现的愿望。表示现在不能实现的愿望,从句谓语动词用过去式;表示将来不能实现的愿望,从句谓语动词用could/would+动词原形;表示过去不能实现的愿望,从句谓语用“had+过去分词”。如: I wish I were a bird. 我要是一只鸟多好啊! I wish I had started to study English years ago. 我要是早几年开始学英语就好了。 I wish you would stop asking silly questions. 但愿你不要再问愚蠢的问题了。 3) would rather“宁愿,宁可”后接从句,从句用过去时指现在或将来;用过去完成时指过去,如: I'd rather you went there now. 我宁愿你现在就去那里。 I would rather he came to see me tomorrow. 我宁愿他明天来看我。 I would rather he hadn't told you about it. 我宁愿他没有把这件事告诉你。 4) Would you mind if ... ? 这是表示请求许可的句型,if 从句用虚拟语气,谓语用一般过去时,如: Would you mind if I smoked in the next room ? 我在隔壁房间里抽烟你介意吗? 3. 表语从句

1) as if /though(似乎,好像,仿佛)引导的表语从句如果表示与现在事实相反,谓语动词用一般过去时;表示与过去事实相反,谓语动词用过去完成时;表示与将来事实,谓语用would /might/ could+动词原形。如: It is so cold that it seems as if we were in Siberia. 天真冷好像我们到了西伯利亚似的。 It looks as if it might rain. 看起来好像要下雨。 2) 当表示间接的要求、建议、命令、决定、欲望、劝告、主张等名词作主语时,其表语从句用虚拟语气。这类名词有suggestion, proposal , request, order, advice, idea, demand, recommendation等,其谓语用(should)+动词原形。如: Our suggestion is that you (should) be the first to go. 我们的建议是你应该先去。 My idea is that he (should) do his homework first. 我的想法是他先做作业。 4. 上述名词的同位语从句也用虚拟语气,其谓语用(should)+动词原形。如: Do you know the order that you (should ) keep watch ? 你知道你该去放哨的命令吗? We all agreed to his suggestion that we (should ) go to Beijing for sightseeing. 我们都同意他要我们去北京浏览的建议。 四、虚拟语气在定语从句中的运用

在“It is (high) time (that)…”句型中(that)引导的是定语从句,从句的谓语动词习惯上用过去式,(有时也可用should+动词原形,should不能省略),表示“早该干某事了,是某人该干某事的时候了”。如: It is time we went (should go) home. 我们该回家了。 It’s high time you made (should make) up your mind. 是你下决心的时候了。 五、虚拟语气在状语从句中的运用

1. 在in order that, so that引导的目的状语从句中,用may或might+动词原形(so that从句中也可用can或could)表示虚拟语气。如: If you do know, answer in a loud enough voice in order that (so that) all the class may hear. 如果你真的知道,你就大声回答,以便让全班同学都能听到。 He came ten minutes earlier in order (so that) he might get a good seat. 为了搞到个好坐位,他早十分钟来了。 2. asif/ though(似乎,仿佛)引出的方式状语从,如果表示真实情况应该用直陈语气;
如果表示非真实情况则应该用虚拟语气, 其谓语动词的虚拟式与wish后面宾语从句中谓语动词的虚拟式相同。 1) 与现在事实相反,用动词过去式,be动词用were。如:

He talks as if he knew everything in the world. 他谈起话来好像他知道世间的一切似的。 He speaks English as if he were an Englishman. 他说起英语来就好像他是个英国人似的。 2) 与过去事实相反,用“had+过去分词”的虚拟结构。如: He behaved as if nothing had happened. 他表现出好像什么都没发生似的。 He talks as if he had been to the moon. 他谈起话来好像他上过月球似的。 3) 与将来事实相反,用“would (might)+动词原形”的虚拟结构。如: She cried as if her heart would break. 他哭得心都要碎了。 六、if only引导的句中虚拟语气的用法

  “If only…从句 “表示一种愿望或是向往的假设,其意义是"要是……就好了”、 “但愿……”。这个句型中的语序是正常语序,不倒装。另外,其谓语动词的虚拟式与wish后面宾语从句中谓语动词的虚拟式相同。例如:
If only she could understand my real feelings.
要是她能了解我的真实想法就好了。
If only my mother had survived the disease and lived till now.
要是我妈妈没有死于疾病而活到现在就好了。
If only he would fine a satisfactory job after his graduation.
但愿他毕业后找到一份称心如意的工作。 七、“情态动词+have done”的虚拟结构

1. 在对过去应该做而没做的事情表示责备的句子中,谓语用“should+have done”的虚拟结构。如: You should have been here five minutes ago. 你本应该5分钟前就到这儿。 I should have told you about it earlier. 有关这事我本应该早告诉你。 2. “could+have done”虚拟语气,表示对过去事情的假设,意思是本来能够做某事而没有做。如: He could have passed the exam, but he was too careless. 本来他能够通过考试,但是他太粗心。 “There were already five people in the car, but they managed to take me as well.”  “It couldn’t have been a comfortable journey.” “车里已经有五个人了,他们又设法带上了我。” “那一定不会是个舒服的旅程。” 3.“might+have done”可表示虚拟,意思是过去某个动作有可能发生,但实际上并没发生。  He might have given you more help, even though he was busy. 他或许会多给你一些帮助,即使他很忙。 She might have achieved greater progress, if you had given her more chances. 如果你多给她点机会,她可能已经取得了更大的成绩。 4.“would+have done”虚拟语气,表示对过去事情的假设,意思是“本来会做”。如: I would have told you all about the boy’s story, but you didn’t ask me. 我本来会告诉你这个小男孩的故事,但是你没有问我。 Without your help, I wouldn’t have achieved so much. 没有你的帮助,我是不会取得如此大的成绩的。 5.“should+have done”虚拟语气,含有指责对方或自责的意思,意为“本来应该做某事,而实际没做”。其否定式表示本不应该做某事而实际上做了。如: Tom, you are too lazy. The work should have been finished yesterday. 汤姆,你太懒惰了,这个活本来应该昨天就做完的。 Look, Tom is crying. I shouldn’t have been so hard on him. 看,汤姆哭了,我本来不应该对他如此严厉。 6.“ought to+have done”表示过去应该做而实际没有做,意为“理应做……”,往往表示遗憾。其否定式表示过去本不应该做某事而实际上做了。如: You ought to have gone home last Sunday. 我理应上星期天回家的。 You ought to have given him more help. 你理应多帮助他 7.“need+have done”表示本来需要做某事而没有做,其否定式为本不必做某事而实际上做了。如: I needn’t have bought so much wine—only five people came. 我本来没必要买这么多酒,只来了五个人。 He need have hurried to the station. In that case, he wouldn’t have missed the train. 他本来需要快点去车站,那样的话,他就不会误了火车。    8. “ would rather+ have done” 表示宁愿过去干了某事,而实际上并没发生;其否定形式意思为表示宁愿过去没干某事,而实际上却做了。  I raised objections at the meeting. I’d rather haven’t.  我在会上提了反对意见, 我倒愿没有这样。 八.虚拟语气用于口语交际场合

虚拟语气常用于表示客气、委婉的说法。它之所以能表示客气、委婉的意思,就是因为它的语气是虚拟的;也就是说,讲话的人有意识地将其所说的内容虚拟化,从而给听话人在是否接受所听到的内容方面留有较大空间、余地;而不至于使听话人在是否接受所听到的内容方面感到有压力或是强迫感。从这个意义上讲,虚拟语气比直陈语气,祈使语气更为客气、委婉、礼貌。例如:
Could you tell me the way to the nearest shopping center ?
你能告诉我去最近的购物中心的路吗?
Would you mind lowering your voice? 请你小声点儿,行吗?
Perhaps you could get better results this way .你这样做效果或许要好一点。
Which seat might I take? 我可以坐哪个位子?

九.一些动词的过去完成时表虚拟

 在英语中一些表示“希望,打算,计划,意图”的动词, 如:hope, plan, want, think, expect, mean, intend, wish, 等的过去完成时,可表示未能实现的打算,计划,愿望等。   I had planned to visit you, but I had an unexpected visitor.   The firefighters had wished to put out the fire in one hour, but they failed. 十.不定式结构中的虚拟语气现象

would/should like to have done, 动词“hope, plan, expect, mean, intend, wish”的过去式+ to have done 以及 was/ were to have done 也可表示虚拟。表示本打算,计划干某事,但事实上并未发生。be supposed to have done 相当于should have done The plane was to have taken off at 8 o’clock, but it was held up because of a heavy fog. I hoped to have completed the work before now. You are supposed to have completed the work by now.

 

 

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