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新课标英语语法讲练九:动词词义辨析  

2012-04-02 11:29:01|  分类: 【教学资料】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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新课标英语语法讲练九:动词词义辨析

 

动词是是各类考试的重点,高考试题中,单项填空、完形填空和改错等三项题型中,动词辨义的比重较大,并逐年增加。动词辨义主要指:1、形状相同的动词之间辨义。如:lie, lay; hanged, hung; rise, raise; sit, seat等。2、意义相近的动词之间辨义。如:borrow, lend; speak, say, talk; hope, wish等。3、动词与其它词形相近、意义相似的词的辨义。如:advise, advice; cost, worth; pass, past 等。4、意义不同,但容易混淆的动词的辨义。如:explain, say; discover, invent, uncover; find, find out等。5、某些常用动词的习惯用法的辨义。如:ask, give, call, make, find, get, keep, want, see, hear等。6、某些常用动词短语的辨义。如:give in, give up, turn on, turn off, turn down, turn up等。
(一)易混动词
 1、lay(放), lie(躺)与lie(说谎):这三个易混动词构成见下表:
中  文 原  形 过 去 式 过去分词 现在分词 说  明
放 lay laid laid laying 及物动词
躺 lie lay lain lying 不及物动词
说谎 lie lied lied lying 不及物动词
 2、rise和raise:rise是不及物动词,其过去式是rose,过去分词是risen,而raise是及物动词,是规则动词。
 3、hear与listen to:hear侧重点是听到,听见什么,而listen to是侧重于听的倾向,但hear用于无意中的听见,而listen to却用于集中注意力的听。
4、see, watch和look:see用作看电影,剧目;watch则用作看电视比赛,而watch还有在旁观看之意。如:Are you going to play or only watch?;look一般用作不及物动词,只是当盯着某人看时用作及物动词,如:The little boy looked me in the face.(小男孩直盯着我的脸。)
5、wind和wound:wind意为蜿蜒而行,其过去式与过去分词都是wound,而动词原形wound意为伤害,其过去式、过去分词都是wounded。
6、hang的用法:hang有两个意思:一为悬挂,是不规则动词,过去式、过去分词都是hung;二为绞刑,是规则动词,其过去式、过去分词都是hanged。
    7、hear的过去分词born与borne:bear作为出生讲有两个过去分词born,borne。只有当be+born…短语后没有by介词短语时,才可用born。如:He was born in Shanghai. 而作它用时要用borne。如:She has borne five children. 但如果作忍受讲,则一律用borne。
    8、sit与seat:seat为及物动词时是作容纳讲,sit只是表示一动作。seat如果表示就座时要用be seated。如:They were seated at their desks. 或用seat oneself, 比如:I seated myself in the armchair.
    9、borrow, lend与keep:借入英文中用borrow,借出用lend,但这两个词都是截止性动词或瞬间动词,不能用于长时间的动作,所以我能借多久应用keep。
    10、win与beat:win作胜、赢讲时其后应接,a game, an argument, a battle, a prize, a contest, a race, a bet,但不能接人,如果接人则有另外的含意。如:I have won him. 即我已说服他了,我赢得他的好感。而beat是及物动词为击败、胜过讲,直接接人、队。
    11、steal与rob:steal为偷。rob为抢,其用法不同。steal其后接物+from+某人、某地,而rob其后接人+of+抢的物品。
    12、fit与suit:fit与suit均可作合适讲,但英文中却用在不同的地方。如fit用于尺寸大小的合适,而suit则多用于颜色式样的合适。 
    13、take, bring 与fetch:英文中拿三个词,即拿来,拿去,去取然后回来(即双程)。所以拿来,带来是bring,拿去带走是take,而去取回来是fetch。
    14、shut与close:shut与close有时是可以互换的,但有些地方则不可这样做。如:在正式场合多用close,而在命令,态度粗暴的场合则用shut。如:Shut your mouth!(闭嘴);又如:Shut up. 在指铁路、公路交通关闭或停止使用的场合,则要用close。
    15、answer与reply:作为回答讲answer是及物动词,如作不及物动词,则意义不同,如answer for,意为向某人或向某事负责。而reply作回答讲是不及物动词,后跟宾语时,要加上to。
    16、reach,arrive与get to:reach当到达讲是及物动词,而当延伸和拿得到、拿不到时讲,则是不及物动词。作到达讲时还有get to, arrive(at/in)。
    17、cost,spend与take:英文中花费有三个词cost, spend, take,但各有不同用法。cost作 “花费”讲,主语不能是人,而spend的主语不能是物。如: she spent all his money on stamps.而take作花费讲时,可用人也可用物做主语。更多的用法是用形式主语it,如It takes me three hours to finish this work.
    18、lost, gone与missing:作补足语时意为丢失、不见了,可以用lost, gone,但要用 miss时则不能用missed, 而要用missing.
    19、have on, wear, put on及dress:作穿衣服讲的动词分为状态和动作两种。have on与wear作穿着状态讲;但have on不用进行时态,而wear则常要用进行时态。put on是动作,但dress既可用作状态,又可用作穿衣动作,但用作状态时要用其过去分词作形容词如:He was dressed in a b1ue suit作动作讲时,其后不要接衣物而要接反身代词或表示人、物的名词,如:I dress my children in the morning every day.
 20、begin与start
     begin与Start 均可作开始讲,并无多少区别,同样可接不定式或动名词,但在下面的场合多要用Start:1)机器的开动发动;2)旅途的开始。如:we shou1d have to start early because there was a lot traffic in the street。
    21、allow 与permit
     allow与permit其后直接接动作时要用动名词,如接人后再接动词则要用不定式,所以用在被动语态时一定要用不定式。如:People are not allowed to spit.
    22、find与found
 find找到的过去式和过去分词都是found,而found是动词“建立”的原形,其过去式和过去分词是founded,founded,如:The People’s Republic of China was founded in 1949.
 23、speak, say, talk 与tell
 英文中讲有4个词,speak, say, talk, tell,但其中speak, talk多用作不及物动词,但speak后加语言名词时则用作及物动词,如:Please speak English。而say与tell是及物动词,其中tell常用作接双宾语,如:Tell me a story。但也有些特定的习惯用法,如:在作讲实话,讲谎言,表示时间常用单宾语而不能换其它词,如:My watch was broken. It couldn’t tell time correctly。在书信、便条、海报上写着英文应为It said …。在作辨别不同讲时是tell,如:Can you tell me the difference between the two?而讲别人好坏话时用speak,如:The father always speaks well of his son.。
 24、excuse me 与sorry
 excuse me用于来打拢对方前以提醒对方注意的提示语,而sorry则表达因作了某事向对方道歉。
 25、care for 与care to do
 care for其后要接不定式时则要省去for或换用名词,如:Would you care for a cup of tea?但care for作照顾讲时与look after相同。
    26、与名词易混的动词有:advise(v.), advice (n.); accept(v.), except(prep.); pass(v.), past(prep.); bathe(v.), bath(n.); breathe(v.), breath(n.); choose(v.), choice(n.); succeed(v.), success(n.);
 27、意义相近的动词:ring摇铃,打铃,电话铃响,strike专指敲钟,打几点,撞击;suggest提出实验性或推测性的建议,advice表示对经验不足人的一种忠告;look由视觉得出的印象,seem暗示一定根据的判定,appear外表印象而实际或结果并非如此;stay停留,逗留,remain遗物,某物被取走一部分后剩余部分;discover(发现)找到早已存在但未被人所了解的东西,invent(发明)研制出不存在的东西;remember记忆起以前经历或知道的事,remind提醒某人做某事。
 28、动词 + 副词 + 介词:catch up with, look forward to, come up with, keep up with, go in for, look down on, get on with …
 29、动词 + 介词to的词组有:come to, stick to, object to, agree to, turn to, attend to, belong to, devote to, reply to …
 30、与in相结合的动词有:give in, hand in, bring in, drop in, succeed in, take in, check in, engage in, fill in, trade in …
(二)动词短语
    动词短语是指动词和介词、副词或名词的习惯搭配。有关动词短语的测试点主要涉及结构上选用恰当的搭配词,不同搭配含意上的辨异及不同短语的辨异。需掌握以下要点:
1、根据动词短语的不同特点,掌握其运用规律。
    (I)动词+副词(不及物)
    Harry turned up after the party when everyone had left. 晚会后,人们都已离去,哈里出现了。
    (2)动词+副词(及物)
    Please turn every light in the house off. 请把房子里的每一盏灯都关掉。
 注意:①如果宾语较长,就应避免把副词同动词分开。如:She turned off all the lights which had been left on. 她关掉了所有还在亮着的灯。②如果宾语是人称代词,只能放在动词和副词之间。如:She gave them away. 她送掉了它们。
(3)动词+介词(及物)
I'm looking for my glasses. 我在找我的眼镜。
注意:①当它跟宾语时,不能把介词放在宾语后面。②动词短语可以放在句子或从句末尾。如:She's got more work than she can cope with. 她的工作多得使她应付不了。
    (4)动词+副词+介词
    I look forward to seeing you soon. 我盼望不久就见到你。
    注:“动词+介词”、“动词+名词+副词”、“动词+副词+介词”,这三种搭配都是及物的,如变成被动语态,不可漏掉介词。In this way both grain and vegetable can be well looked after. (不能漏掉after) 这样一来,粮食和蔬菜都能兼顾了。
2、熟悉同一动词和不同介词或副词、不同的动词和同一介词或同一副词搭配在意义上的差异。
   (1)同一动词和不同介词搭配时,意义上的差异。如:①hear from收到…的来信,hear of听说。 ②look after照料,look at看,look for寻找。
   (2)同一动词和不同副词搭配时,意义上的差异。如:①ring back回电话, ring off挂断电话, ring up打电话 ②put away放好, put on穿,上演, put up挂起,举起。
   (3)不同动词和同一介词搭配时,在意义上的差异。如:look for寻找, call for去取(某物),去接(某人), ask for请求, wait for等候, send for派人去叫。
   (4)不同动词和同一副词搭配时,在意义上的差异。如:①break out发生,爆炸, carry out进行,开展, go out熄灭, hand out分发, let out放出, look out当心, sell out卖完, set out出发, take out取出, work out算出。②break down出毛病, come down落下来, get down下车, take down取下, write down写下。
练习、动词词义辨析
1.I can hardly ____ the difference between the two words.
A. point         B.speak                C.say              D.tell
2.I ____ you will write me back soon.
A. wish          B.hope                C.want            D.need
3.I asked him to ____ me a few minutes so that I could have a word with him.
A. spend         B. spare                C.save             D. share
4. Father will not ____ us to touch anything in his room when he is away.
A. have          B.let                   C. agree            D. allow
5.I learned to ____ a bicycle as a small boy.
A. ride           B. drive                C. operate           D.run
6.I can ____ you to the railway station in my car.
A. send         B.pick                C.ride            D.take
7.If no one ____ the phone at home, ring me at work.
A. answers       B. returns               C. replies           D. receives
8.1 don't know the restaurant, but it's____ to be quite a good one.
A.said          B.told                 C.spoken           D.talked
9. These boxes are too heavy for your mother, you'd better____ them for her.
A. bring         B. carry                C.take             D. fetch
10. There was a fight in the street yesterday. Three people were seriously ____.
A. hurt         B. killed                C. broken           D.cut
 1. Careless driving ____ a lot of highway accidents.
A. affects        B. gives                 C. causes            D. results
12. I've____my umbrella in the office and I'll have to fetch it.
A. forgot        B.left                   C. remained         D.lost
13 .The doctor says a few days' rest in a quiet place will ____ you a lot of good.
A. make       B.do                 C.give            D.get
14. His heart ____ fast when the teacher asked him a difficult question.
A. beat         B.hit                  C. jumped          D.ran
15. The cooking chicken ____ very good.
A. smells       B. feels                C. sounds           D. tastes
16. Most children stay at home until they ____ school age.
A. get         B.come              C. reach           D. arrive
17. A single mistake here could ____ you your life.
A. pay         B.take                C. spend           D.cost
18. The boy works hard. I____ him to succeed in the exam.
A. like         B. expect              C. think            D.need
19. We ____ each other the best of luck in the examination.
A. hoped       B. wanted              C. expected         D. wished
20. I'm afraid Mr Brown isn't in. Would you like to____a message?
A.give         B.leave                C.carry            D.take
21. Do you know the girl ____ a red coat?
A. dressed in    B. had on               C. wore             D. put on
22. The assistant suggested Mary ____ the blue skirt.
A. buying       B. bought               C. to buy            D. could buy
23. Our teacher suggested Wang Lin ____ to America for further study.
A. should send  B. would be sent        C. sending        D.be sent
24. Old Mr Jackson insisted ____ to the Friendship Hospital.
A. on being sent   B. to send               C. on sending        D. being sent
25. The father insisted that their son Tom ____ clever enough to study music.
A. be           B. should be            C.was              D. would be
26.I ____ the television set for 1,500 yuan.
A. bought       B.paid                 C.cost              D. spent
27.I ____ play football than basketball.
A. would rather   B. had better         C. like better        D. prefer
28. - What are you doing?  - I'm looking____ the children. They should be back for lunch now.
A.after        B.at                  C.for             D.up
29. The sports meet will be ____ till next week because of the bad weather.
A. put off       B. put away             C. put up           D. put down
30.I really don't want to go to the party, but I don't see how I can ____ it.
A. get back from   B. get out of        C. get away          D. get off
31. Readers can ____ quite well without knowing the exact meaning of each word.
A. get over      B. get in                C; get along         D. get through
32. Many foreigners ____ the Great Wall as the World's Seventh Wonder.
A. look at       B. look for              C. look around       D. look on
33.1 can' t hear clearly. Please ____ the radio ____ a little.
A.tum;on     B.tum;off          C.tum;down      D.tum;up
34. Thirty people were expected, but only twenty - four ____.
A. turned in     B. turned up             C. turned to         D. turn up
35. The child is running a high fever. We must____ a doctor at once.
A. send in      B. send out             C. send for         D. send up
36. I'm going to a pop concert with Tom. He'll ____ me at eight and we'll go there togethe;
A. call for      B. call in               C. call on           D. call up
37. It is often easier to make plans than it is to ____.
A. carry on them  B. carry out them        C. carry them on     D. carry them out
38. Your composition must be ____ after class.
A. handed to    B. handed out           C. handed in        D. handed over
39. A new school was ____ in the village last year.
A. held up      B. set up                C. sent up          D. brought up
40. - When did the plane ____?   -At 2 o'clock.
A. take off'     B. take up             C. take away        D. take place
41. ____! There's danger ahead.
A. Look at      B.Look up            C.Look on         D.Look out
42.Let's____ to clean the house. It's too dirty.
A.set about     B.set out               C.set off           D.set down
43.I used to ____ my teacher when I was in Beijing.
A. call in .      B. call at              C. call for           D. call on
44. He ____ from his family and settled down in America.
A. broke away   B. broke out          C. broke up       D. broke in
45. He had to ____ his father's business after his death, though he didn't really want to continue it.
A. carry out     B. pick up               C. set up            D. carry on
46. The robbers had no trouble in ____ the bank, but when they came out ,the police were waiting for them.  A. breaking out  B. breaking into    C. breaking up      D. breaking away from
47. Autumn is coming. The farmers are busy____ the crops in the fields.
A. moving in    B. sharing in         C. handing in        D. getting in
48. All the students ____ their holidays to take part in planting trees.
A. gave out     B. gave in             C. gave up         D. gave away
49. He was always the last to leave in order to clean up the workroom and ____ the tools.
A. put away     B. take away            C. push aside        D. look after
50.____ this article and tell me what you think of it.
A. Look up      B. Look on              C. Look into        D. Look through

 

参考答案
语法复习九:动词词义辨析
1~5 DBBDA  6~10 CAABA  11~15 CBBAA  16~20 CDBDB  21~25 AADAC
26~30 AACAB  31~35 CDCBC  36~40 ADCBA  41~45 DBDAD  46~50 BDCAD

 

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