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新课标英语语法讲练十三:形容词和副词  

2012-04-02 11:44:47|  分类: 【教学资料】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 新课标英语语法讲练十三:形容词和副词

 

比较级和最高级及其使用

形容词的比较级和最高级


说 明

 

 

例 词

 

一般情况

加er, est

smaller,smallest

 

以e 结尾

加r,st

larger,largest

单音节词和少数多音节的形容词,加词尾er ,est

以"辅音字母+y "结尾的词

改y为i,再加er,est

busier,busiest

 

重读闭音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母

双写末尾辅音字母,加er,est

fatter,fattest

 

以ow,er结尾的双音节词

加er ,est

narrower,narrowest  cleverer,clevest

多数双音节和多音节的词

加more most

 

more beautiful,  most important  


   副词的比较级和最高级
  1.大多数以ly结尾的副词前加more 和most 来构成比较级和最高级。
  2.少数单音节副词,加er,est 构成其比较级和最高级 。
  几个特殊的形容词和副词
原级

比较级

最高级

good ,well

better

best

bad, ill, badly

worse

worst

many ,much

more

most

little

less

least

far

farther, further

farthest,further

old

older, elder

oldest, eldest


  比较级和最高级的常用句型


名称

句型

例句

相等

as 原形 as    (as 原形+名词 as )

The train travels as fast as the 3:55 train. He has not as much money as his friend.

不及

not as(so) 原形 as   (not as[so ]+名词+原形 as )

She is not as (so)beautiful as her sister.

 

比较级+ than

Health is more important than wealth.

超越

the +比较级+of the two  两者中较… 的一个

He is the taller of the two.

用于否定

no +比较级+than   和…一样不

He is no richer than I.  他和我一样不富有。

用于否定

最…不过

His work couldn't be worse.  他的工作再糟糕不过了。

程度递增

er and er,more and more+多音节词原级 (越来越…)

higher and higher more and more important

两种情况同时变化

the +比较级,the+比较级  (越…,越…)

The quicker you get ready, the sooner we'll be able to leave.

三者或三者以上比较

the +最高级+of/in+比较范围  (…之中最…)

Of all things in the world, people are the precious.


   比较级结构的修饰语
  1.用于原级之前:
  almost, nearly, just, exactly, quite, half , twice,three times , a third,etc.
  John is almost as tall as you.
  The river is three times as long as that one.
  We have a third as many students as we had last term.
  2.用于比较级前
  many, a few (用于"more +可数名词"前)
  It takes many more hours to go there by train than by plane.
  a lot, much , a bit, even, a little , still, a great deal, far, rather, two years, ten percent,three times etc.
  It's cold this year, but it's even colder last year.
  We produced 6% more grain this year than we did last year.
  3.用于形容词和最高级前
  the very , much the ,by far the ,the first/second
  This hat is by far the largest in the world.
  Gold is the very most valuable of all materials .

位置与功能

高考重点要求
  1.掌握形容词、副词比较级、最高级的常用句型及用法
  2.掌握形容词、副词的原级、比较级和最高级修饰语及倍数的比较表达。
  3.注意多外形容词修饰同一名词的前后顺序。
  4.分清常用同义与近义形容词在表达中的语义差别。
  此项语法内容从1991年到达2001年间共出现45次(包括上海题),可见其重要。
  形容词作用与位置
  1.定语。
  在名词前做定语,为最常见用法。请注意多个形容词(含其它起形容词作用的词)做前置定语的顺序。
  "县官行令杀国才。"这一句就概述了形容词顺序问题。即:
  限(冠词[物主代词、指示代词]数词等)观 (描绘) 形(大小、形状等) 龄 (年龄、新旧等)色(色彩)国(国籍、出处等)材(
材料、功用等)
  an interesting English film a heavy black Chinese silk umbrella
  做后置定语。修饰由不定代词no ,any, some ,every和one,thing等构成的复合词或形容词短语。
  2.表语。一定要注意系动词的出现情况。这是一个高考热点问题。
  常见系动词有:be
  变化系词: become, get ,turn, grow, go
  保持系词: keep ,remain, stay
  感观系词: look, smell , taste, feel, sound,appear , seem ,prove etc.
  3.形容词作状语,表状况、原因、结果等。这也是应注意的一点。
  He went to bed , cold and hungry.
   4.做宾补。
  N:①某些以a 开始的形容词只做表语,不做定语。
  afraid, alike, alone, asleep ,awake,alive
  ②某些表身体健康状况的形容词只能做表语,不做定语
  well, ill faint
  ③某些以-ly 结尾的词是形容词而不是副词。
  friendly, lively, lovely, lonely, likely, deadly, orderly 等。
  ④复合形容词的形式问题。
  an 800-meter-wide river an English-speaking country a middle-aged man
  副词
  位置
  1)时间副词和地点副词一般放于句尾。如同时出现,则地点副词在前。
  They went boating in Zhongshan Park yesterday.
  2)表频率的时间副词是高考的热点
  always, seldom, often, never, rarely, usually 等,通常放于行为动词之前,be词、情态动词和助动词之 后。
  He is always telling lies,so I will never believe him.
  3)程度副词一般放在被修饰词之前(但 enough除外)
  He is very young ,so he is not old enough to go to school.
  N:有些副词有两种形式,一个与形容词同形,一个以ly 结尾,但它们的含义是不同的。
  closely-close nearly-near freely-free deeply-deep highly-high widely-wide 等。
  以ly 结尾的词表较为抽象的含义,而与形容词同形的副词则表较为具体的概念。
  He is highly praised for what he has done. (高度地)
  He can see a bird is flying high in the sky.(飞得高,具有可见性)

练习、形容词和副词

高考题选:

1. John has three sisters. Mary is the ___ of the three. (MET88)
   A. most cleverest   B. more clever   C. cleverest   D. cleverer
2. The students are___ young people between the age of sixteen and twenty. (MET88)
   A. most   B. almost   C. mostly   D. at most
3. She told us ___story that we all forgot about the time. (MET88)
   A. such an interesting   B. such interesting a
   C. so an interesting   D. a so interesting
4. It is impossible for so___ workers to do so work in a single day. (MET88)
   A. few, much   B. few, many   C. little, much   D. little, many
5. The horse is getting old and can't run ___ it did. (MET88)
   A. as faster as   B. so fast than   C. so fast as   D. as fast as
6. The story sounds___ . (MET89)
   A. to be true   B. as true   C. being true   D. true
7. I'd been expecting ___ letters the whole morning, but there weren't ___ for me. (MET89)
   A. some; any   B. many; a few   C. some; one   D. a few; none
8. This year they have produced ___ grain ___ they did last year. (MET89)
   A. as less; as   B. as few; as   C. less; than   D. fewer; than
9. After the new technique was introduced, the factory produced ___ tractors in 1988 as the year before. (MET90)
   A. as twice many   B. as many twice
   C. twice as many   D. twice many as
10. The pianos in the other shop will be , but______ . (MET90)
   A. cheaper; not as better   B. more cheaper; not as better
   C. cheaper; not as good   D. more cheap; not as good
11. ---Can I help you?
    ---Well, I'm afraid the box is___ heavy for you, but thank you all the same. (MET90)
   A. so   B. much   C. very   D. too
12.---Excuse me, is this Mr. Brown's office?
    ---I'm sorry, but Mr. Brown ___ works here. He left about three weeks ago. (MET90)
   A. not now   B. no more   C. not still   D. no longer
13. If we had followed his plan, we could have done the job better with ___ money and ___ people. (MET90)
   A. less; less   B. fewer; fewer   C. less; fewer   D. fewer; less
14. Oh, John. ___ you gave me! (MET90)
   A. How a pleasant surprise   B. How pleasant surprise
   C. What a pleasant surprise   D. What pleasant surprise
15. ---How did you find your visit to museum?
    ---I thoroughly enjoyed it. It was ___ than I expected. (MET91)
   A. far more interesting   B. even much interesting
   C. so more interesting   D. a lot much interesting
16. Canada is larger than ___ country in Asia. (NMET91)
   A. any   B. any other   C. other   D. another
17. Those oranges taste___ . (MET91)
   A. good   B. well   C. to be good   D. to be well
18. The experiment was ___ easier than we had expected. (NMET91)
   A. more   B. much more   C. much   D. more much
19. ___ food you've cooked! (NMET91 )
   A. How a nice   B. What a nice
   C. How nice   D. What nice
20. Go and get your coat. It's ___ you left it. (MET92)
   A. there   B. where   C. there where   D. where there
21. John was so sleepy that he could hardly keep his eyes___ . (MET92)
   A. open   B. to be opened   C. to open   D. opening
22. ---Are you feeling ___?
   ---Yes, I' m fine now. (NMET92)
   A. any well   B. any better   C. quite good   D. quite better
23. Which is___ country, Canada or Australia? (MET92)
   A. a large   B. larger   C. a larger   D. the larger
24. ---Will you give this message to Mr. White, please?
    ---Sorry, I can't. He ___. (MET92)
   A. doesn't any more work here   B. doesn't any longer here work
   C. doesn't work any more here   D. doesn't work here any longer
25. How can you finish the drawing? (MET92)
   A. often   B. soon   C. long   D. rapid 26. ___ terrible weather we've been having these days! (MET92)
   A. How a   B. What a   C. How   D. What
27. It takes a long time to go there by train. It's___ by road.   (MET93)
   A. quick   B. the quickest   C. much quick   D. quicker
28. ___ from Beijing to London! (MET93)
   A. How long way it is   B. What a long way is it
   C. How long way is it   D. What a long way it is
29. She doesn't speak___ her friends, but her written work is excellent. (MET93)
   A. as well as   B. as often as   C. so much as   D. as good as
30. ---Mum, I think I'm___ to get back to school.
    ---Not really, My dear. You'd better stay at home for another day or two. (NMET93)
   A. so well   B. so good   C. well enough   D. good enough
31. ---If you don't like the red coat, take the blue one.
    ---OK, but do you have size___ in blue? This one's a bit tight for me. (NMET93)
   A. a big   B. a bigger   C. the big   D. the bigger
32. John plays footbal___ , if not better than, Davi. (NMET94)
   A. as well   B. as well as   C. so well   D. so well as
33. We all write___ ,even when there's net much to say. (NMET94)
   A. now and then   B. by and by   C. step by step   D. more or less
34. ---Do you remember ___ he came?
    ---Yes I do, he came by car. (NMET94)
   A. how   B. when   C. that   D. if
35. If there were no examinations, we should have ___at school. (NMET94)
   A. the happiest time   B. a more happier time
   C. much happiest time   D. a much happier time
36. ---Have you finished your report yet?
    ---No, I'll finish in___ ten minutes. (NMET95)
   A. another   B. other   C. more   D. less
37. ---I'd like ___ information about the management of your hotel, please.
    ---Well, you could have ___ word with the manager. He might be helpful. (NMET95)
   A. some; a   B. an; some   C. some; some   D. an; a
38. If we work with a strong will, we can overcome any difficulty,___ great it is. (NMET95)
   A. what   B. how   C. however   D. whatever
39. We decided not to climb the mountains because it was raining ____. (NMET96)
   A. badly   B. hardly   C. strongly   D. heavily
40. How beautifully she sings! I have never heard ___. (NMET96)
   A. the better voice   B. a good voice
   C. the best voice    D. a better voice
41. Tony is going camping with ___ boys. (NMET93)
   A. little two other   B. two little other
   C. two other little   D. little other two
42. ---How was your recent visit to Qingdao? (NMET95)
   ---It was great. We visited some friends, and spent ___the days at the seaside.
   A. few last sunny   B. last few sunny
   C. last sunny few   D. few sunny last
43. Can you believe that in ___ a rich country there should be _ many poor people? (MET95)
   A. such; such   B. such; so   C. so; so   D. so; such
44. Wait till you are more___ .It's better to be sure than sorry. (NMET97)
   A. inspired   B. satisfied   C. calm   D. certain
45. Professor White has written some short stories, but he is ___ known for his plays. (NMET98)
   A. the best   B. more   C. better   D. the most
46.___ to take this adventure course will certainly learn a lot of useful skills. (NMET2000 )
   A. Brave enough students   B. Enough brave students
   C. Students brave enough   D. Students enough brave
47. It's always difficult being in a foreign country, ___ if you don't speak the language. (NMET2000 )
   A. extremely   B. naturally   C. basically   D. especially
48. I am surprised that you should have been fooled by such a (an) ___ trick. (2001 春招)
   A. ordinary   B. easy   C. smart   D. simple
49. It is generally believed that teaching is___ it is a science. (NMET2001)
   A. an art much as   B. much an art as
   C. as an art much as   D. as much an art as
50.---I'm very ___with my own cooking. It looks nice and smells delicious.
   ---Mm, it does have a ___smell. (2002春招)
   A. pleasant; pleased   B. pleased; pleased
   C. pleasant; pleasant   D. pleased; pleasant
51.Boris has brains. In fact ,I doubt whether anyone in the class has ___IQ.
  A. a high   B. a higher   C. the higher   D. the highest

语法复习十三:形容词和副词

1.C.原题中的three sisters这一信息词语暗示考生要用最高级的形式。clever的最高级有两种:the most clever,the cleverest
2.C.mostly是副词,意思是:"主要地",修饰整个句子。用most时应为most of the students;用almost通常说almost all+n.
3.A.such与so修饰名词时可这样使用。
so+形容词+a/an+可数名词的单数
so many/few十可数名词复数 so much/little+不可数名词
4.A.few修饰可数名词的复数;much修饰不可数名词。
5.D.A、C项是语法错误。as…as之间不能用比较级形式。B项也是语法错误,than前没有比较级,把than变成as就对了。实际上not as…as=not more than.
6.D.sound是"听起来"的意思。它是系动词,其后接形容词做表语。类似的系动词还有look seem taste smell fell.
7.A.some常用在肯定句中,而any常用在否定、疑问和条件句中。
8.C.grain是不可数名词。A项是语法错误,as…as之间用原级,B项few不修饰grain,D项也如此。
9.C.表示倍数的词与其他表示程度的副词修饰as…as结构时,应放在其前面。
10.C.该题考查了考生是否掌握形容词比较级的两种形式,该句可理解为:The pianos in the other shop will be cheaper,but not as good as those in this shop.
11.D.此处可理解为the box is too heavy for you to carry.
12.D.no longer强调时间;no more强调数量和次数。
13.C.better这一信息词可暗示考生用比较级形式,less修饰不可数名词,fewer修饰可数名词的复数。
14.C.what与how修饰名词引起的感叹句:
   what+a/an+形容词十单数可数名词
   what+形容词+可数名词复数
   what +形容词+不可数名词
   How+形容词+a/an+可数名词单数
  注意what的用法与sach相似,how与so相似。且give s  B. a surprise是惯用法。
15.A.用来修饰比较级的副词有:a little,a bit;even still;far,by far;a lot,a great deal;much,any(用于否定、疑问);rather.
16.A.用比较级表示最高级的意思,用than+any other+单数名词(包括主语在内)或用any+单数名词(比较范围不包括主语在内)。因加拿大不属亚洲。如,把Asia改为North America,则B正确。
17.A.taste是系动词,后接形容词做表语。B项well如果是形容词,表示"身体好"。但Things are well with me.属于特殊情况。参看6题。
18.C.参看15题。
19.D.参看14题。
20.B.where引导表语从句,且where在表语从句中做地点状语。
21.A.当open做宾补时,一般用它的形容词,不用它的现在分词。又如:with his eyes open/closed
22.B.any修饰比较级时,一般用于疑问句和否定句中。
23.D.表示两者中"最…"的意思,用the+比较级。此句可理解Canada is the larger of the two countries.
24.D.no more与no longer变成not…any more或not…any longer时any more和any longer要置于句尾,可参看12题。
25 B.how often表示频率,与题意不符。how long句中的谓语动词应用延续性动词,是"多久"的意思。D项rapid是形容词不能修饰动词。How soon的回答词用in+时间,因此,全句的意思是:"在多长时间之内(或以后)你能画完画?"且句中谓语是瞬间动词。

26.D.可参看14题。weather是不可数名词。
27.D.此处可理解为It's quicker to go by road than by train.  
28.D.参看14题。  
29.A.原题中的but与excellent两个信息词可暗示考生,且not as…as相当于not more than,因此,该句的意思是:"她讲的不如朋友的好,但她的笔头好。"
30.C.well是形容词"身体好"的意思。这是It's+adj+enoush to do sth句型。该句意思是:"我身体已好,可以返回学校了。"
31.B.形容词的比较级修饰可数名词的单数时,前面不要忘了加a,泛指比较…的-个。例如,This shirt is a little larger.Could you show me a smaller one?
32.B.是29题的创新。该句的意思是:"如果不比David好的话,那么会跟David踢的一样好。"if not better than为插入语。
33.A.从even when there's not much to say这一信息句可知。now and then相当于sometimes,occasionally和from time to time,B项by and by=soon,C项step by step=gradually,D项more or less=about,修饰名词,但也可修饰动词,作状语。
34.A.从答语中by car可知,how问的是方式。
35.D.have a good/happy time是惯用法,much修饰比较级。参看31题。
36.A.more与another在表示"再、又"时,用法不同,more置于数词后面,而another置于数词的前面。
37.A.information是不可数名词。have a word with sb.相当于speak/talk to/with sb.与…谈话。
38.C.however是连接副词,修饰形容词great并引导一个让步4状语从句,意思是:"无论困难有多大。"
39.D."下大雨"应说 "rain hard/heavily".
40.D.意为:"我从未听过比她还好的噪音。"用比较级表达最高级的概念。
41.C.要知道形容词排列作定语的顺序。
42.B.与41题考查的目的相同。
43.B.可参看3题。
44.D.从下文It's better to be sure than sorry.即"确信要比后悔好"可知,填入D项。A、B、C项不符合逻辑。
45.C.该题考查副词用法。四个选项均为副词的比较级或最高级,题干的两个并列分句中,已给出some short stories和his plays这一特定的语境,表示二者之间的比较需用副词的比较级。well known是一惯用词组,意为"出名的"、"众所周知的",well的比较级为better,故答案为C。
46.C.形容词作后置定语。enough为副词,修饰形容词brave,放在其后。
47.D.意为"在国外通常是困难的,特别是你不会说外语"。
48.D.意为"我很吃惊你竟然被这么简单的一个诡计愚弄了。"此处,只有用D项才能准确表达这种语气。
49.D."教学更像是一门科学。"第一个as为副词。
50.D。
51.B。


 

 

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