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新课标英语语法讲练十四:代 词  

2012-04-02 11:48:05|  分类: 【教学资料】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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金色阳光


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新课标英语语法讲练十四:代  词 

 

It 的用法
1.作人称代词
John likes playing Pingpong./ He always does it in the afternoon.(指代上下文提到的事物);/  It's time we went home. / How far is it from here to your home ? / It is getting warmer and warmer./ It's very quiet at the moment.(可指时间、天气、环境等)
2.引导词
  A.作形式主语,代替由不定式、动名词或从句表示的真正主语。
  It's important for us to learn a second language./ It's no use talking to him./ It's known to all that the earth goes round the sun.
  B.作形式宾语,代替由不定式、动名词或从句表示的真正宾语。
  We feel it our duty to help others./ He made it clear that he would leave the city.
  C.强调结构:It is (was) +被强调部分+that (或who)…
  注意: 在强调结构中,如被强调部分为时间状语或地点状语,其后的连接词也绝不能为when 或where,而应用that 。在复习中,一定要注意句式的不同。
  It was in Shanghai that I bought the guitar.(that引起强调句)
  It was Shanghai where I bought the guitar.(where引起定从)
  It was twelve o'clock when we arrived there.(when引起时间状语从句)
  It was at twelve o'clock that we arrived there.(that 引起强调句)
3. it,one,that 的区别:作为代词,这三个词的对比使用是高考的热点之一。
  NMET2000,23.
  ---Why don't we take a little break?  ---Didn't we just have __________?
  A.it      B.that  C.one     D.this   
  NMET2001,25.
  The Parkers bought a new house but _________will need a lot of work before they can move in.
A.they   B.it      C.one     D.which   
one 用以指代同类事物中的任一,that 特指性强,指代可数与不可数词,而it指代上文提过的同一事物。
不定代词
不定代词种类较多,用法各异,在使用中一定要注意区别。
1、both,either ,neither 都表两者范围,在句中作主语、宾语、定语 ,both可用作同位语。  both 意为"两者都",either 表"两者中任一个",neither表"两者都不"。
2、any,none ,all 表三者或三者以上范围,any 表任何一个、一些(不可数或复数概念,用于否定句、疑问句或条件从句中);none 表三者或三者以上中的哪一个都不;表示不可数物中的一点儿也没有;all 整个的;所有的(三者或三者以上);所有的(不可数)。
  e.g.This book is a good seller,so you can buy it at any shop in Beijing./ None of us are/is perfect./  All of the village was flooded. 
3、no one,nobody,none,nothing:no one,nobody表没有人,nothing 指没有什么事物,none 兼指人和物。none 着眼于数量概念。"特指的人或物一个也没有,一点儿也没有"。
  ----How many people are there in the hall ?  ----None.
  ----who wants to go with him ?  ----No one(Nobody).
  ----What can you see in the bottle ?  ----Nothing.
  ----Is there any water in it ?  ----None.
4、another,the other,the other+复数名词(或the others),other (或other +复数名词):another 表三者或三者以上范畴中的任一;与数词连用,表"再有";the other 表两者中的另外那个,特指;the other+复数名词(或the others),另外那些,表示其余所有的人或物,用于特指;others (或other+复数名词)另一些,表余下人或物中的另一些,泛指。
  ---I don't like this,show me another one.(NMET 2000,16)
  If you want to change for a double room you'll have to pay_______$15.
  A.another  B.other  C.more  D.Each (A)

人称、物主、反身、指示代词
高考重点要求
  1.掌握人称代词、物主代词、疑问代词、反身代词、指示代词的基本用法。2.重点掌握不定代词的指代含义及数的情况,能通过语境准确选取答案。3.掌握it的基本用法。
  一.人称代词
  1)分清主格和宾格形式。
  eg:---I love you more than her,child ./  ---You mean more than ___love her or more than she loves____?    A. you;me   B.I;you    C.you;you   D.I;me
  2)注意约定俗成的用法。
  ---Who is it ?   ---It's me .  ---I'd like to have a rest .  ---Me,too.
  3)使用we 和you 泛指一般人
  4)使用she代表国家、船只、月亮、大地等
  China is a great country.She has a long history.
  5)并列主语或宾语中顺序是:you,he(she) and I; we,you and they
  二.物主代词:名词性物主代词――在句中做主语、宾语、表语、补足语,构成双重所有格:a friend of mine 。形容词性物主代词――只能起定语作用。
  三.反身代词
  1) 在句中作宾语、表语和同位语;2)单复数的确定;3)在一些语境中的特殊含义。
  e.g. I'm not quite myself today.我今天不大舒服。/ Make yourself at home.不要拘礼;请随便吧。 / Don't get nervous,help yourself to what you like.别紧张,喜欢吃什么就吃什么。/ Have you enjoyed yourself today? 你今天玩得愉快吗?
  四.指示代词
(一)this,that,these those
  1.在句子中作主语、宾语、表语和定语。
  2.this(these)一般指时间和空间上较近的人或物,而that (those)常指时间和空间上较远的人或物。e.g. This is a novel and that is a magazine.
  3.this(these)一般指后面要讲到的事物,而that(those)常指前面讲到的事物。e.g. What he told me is this:he wanted to go to Beijing./ He didn't come.That is why he didn't know.
  4.that,those 常用来指代前面提到过的某个名词。e.g. The oil output in 1998 was higher than that of 1995.( that 代替oil output) / The cars made in Japan are better than those in Germany.
  (二)such
  such引起倒装句,谓语数取决于后面主语的数:e.g Such is my answer./  Such are our people.
  做定语,注意和so 的区别,尤其是在so …that, such…that 句型中。e.g. I have never seen such beautiful flowers.(复数名词前,so 不可) / I have never seen such a great film.(也可为so great a film) /  We have such beautiful weather today that we should go out for an outing.(不可数词前,不可用so) / There are so many people in the hall that it's hard for me to find him.(在数量概念的many,much,little,few 之前,不可用such )
练习(一)、代  词
一、强化训练:
1. New English-Chinese Dictionary has been republished several times,_____ more up to date than the last edition.
   A. any    B. everyone   C. either    D. each
2. After paying 1,000 dollars_____ ,you'll all become full members of our club.
   A. each   B. all    C. every    D. both
3._____ was her cruelty that we all hated her.
   A. It    B. What    C. That    D. Such
4. Mary has been ill in bed for a week. I wonder if she is _____ better now.
   A. much   B. some    C. any    D. very
5. -Which of these two ties will you take?   -I don't like these. Do you have any_____ ?
   A. one    B. other    C. ones    D. others
6. I' d rather ride a bike as bike riding has _____ of the trouble of taking buses.
   A. much   B. all    C. neither   D. none
7. I need some blue ink today but there is _____ at hand.
   A. not    B. nothing   C. a little   D. none
8. I found the very watch of mine _____ I had left _____ .
   A. where, it   B. that, it    C. which, one   D. where, one
9. I haven't got time to get the tickets. Who's going to ____?
   A. do so   B. do it    C. buy it    D. do them
10. -Jack certainly has a high opinion of Susan.     It can't be better than _____of him.
   A. hers    B. she    C. that    D. her
11. -Shall we introduce ____ fire-fighting equipment from abroad?   -Go ahead, if necessary.
   A. other   B. a few more  C. another   D. some other
12. -How about the price of these refrigerators?   -They are equal in price to, if not cheaper than,_____ at the other stores.
   A. others   B. it    C. that    D. the ones
13. -I dislike _____ when others laugh at me in public or speak ill of me behind.   -So do I.
   A. them   B. those    C. it    D. that
14. -Which do you prefer, classical music or pop music?    -_____. I prefer folk music.
   A. Either   B. Both    C. None    D. Neither
15. Why don' t you trust and use old Tom? He is still as strong as _____ in the team.
   A. nobody   B. anybody else  C. everybody   D. somebody else
16. -Are the new methods taking any effect?  -Yes,_____ articles are stolen from our supermarket.
   A. few    B. more    C. some    D. none
17. During the meeting a young man cried out suddenly and threw his notebook at the chairman,_____ brought the room to disorder.
   A. it    B. and which   C. and that   D. this
18. I've just seen no more than one copy of Gone with the Wind in the bookshop opposite. Tom, go and buy_____ back.
   A. one    B. any    C. it    D. some
19. -Do you have _____ at home now?   -No, we still have to get scores of eggs and some vegetables.
   A. nothing    B. everything   C. anything    D. something
20. Nancy is expecting another baby and hopes _____ will be a boy.
   A. he     B. that     C. it     D. there
21. Surely it's _____ with the big nose you mean, not ____!
   A. he, I     B. him, me    C. him, I    D. he, me
22. The temperature can fall to –30℃. _____ is,30°C below freezing point.
   A. Which    B. It     C. That     D. This
23. -The exam was easy, wasn't it?    -Yes, but I don' t think _____ could pass it.
   A. somebody   B. everybody   C. anybody    D. nobody
24. Cut the apple into halves so that the twins may each get _____ half.
   A. every    B. each     C. another    D. either
25. _____ of us can do everything, but all of us can do _____ .
   A. None, something   B. Some, everything  C. Few, something   D. Few, nothing
26. -May I help you with some gloves, sir?   -Yes, I'd like to try those blue ____.
   A. one     B. ones     C. pair     D. two
27. Of all my friends _____ will be able to persuade Tom to change his mind. He is so firm upon it.
   A. none    B. nobody    C. neither    D. no one
28. -Is he content to accept our offered price?
-Yes. He cares more about the quality. Money is _____ to him.
   A. everything   B. anything    C. nothing    D. something
29. I have no idea which was better, so I took ____ of them.
   A. both    B. none     C. all     D. any
30. You mustn't always do _____ as he asks you to do. He may be wrong sometimes.
   A. anything    B. something    C. nothing    D. everything
31. I'm no painter, and to me, one painting is much like .
   A. another    B. the other    C. others    D. one
32. I didn't want either of ____ hats and asked the salesman to show me_____.
   A. those, another   B. two, the other   C. all, the others   D. both, others
33. The children were catching butterflies in the garden. Some caught a lot, and others caught _ at all.
   A. nothing    B. none     C. no one    D. neither
34. Thank you very much indeed. That' s _____ of you.
   A. kindest    B. most kind    C. the kinder    D. the most kind
35. Jack is a very likable fellow, but I've learned to take _____ he says with a grain of salt.
   A. something  B. anything    C. nothing    D. everything
36. -I love you more than her, child.   -You mean more than ____ love her or more than she loves ____?
   A. you, me    B. I, you    C. you, you    D. I, me

 
练习(二)、代  词
二、高考题选:
1. Was it during the Second World War _____he died? (MET88)
A.that    B. while     C. in which    D. then
2. Is _____necessary to take off our shoes when we enter the lab? (MET88H)
    A.everyone   B. this     C. her     D. it
3.Is _____possible to fly to the moon in a spaceship? (MET88)
  A.now   B. that     C. it     D. man
4.His Parents wouldn't let him marry anyone _____family was poor.(MET88)
  A.of whom   B. whom    C. of whose    D. whose
5._____leaves the room last ought to turn off the light. (MET88)
  A.Anyone   B. The person   C. Whoever    D. Who
6._____writer is better known in China,Charcles Dickens or Mark Twain? (MET88)
  A.Which   B. What     C. Either     D. Whether
7.---Have you seen Tom and Mary?    ---I haven' t seen _____of them.(MET88)
  A.neither   B. any     C. either     D. all
8.Is _____necessary to complete the design before National Day? (MET89)
  A.this    B. that     C. it     D. he
9.All _____is needed is a supply of oil.(MET89)
  A.the thing   B. that     C. what     D. which
10.His camera is more expensive than ______.(MET89)
  A.hers    B. her     C. it     D. its
11.I don't think _____possible to master a foreign language without much memory work.(MET90)
  A.this    B. that     C. its     D. it
12.______of them knew about the plan because it was kept in a secret.(MET90)
   A.Each    B. Any     C. No one    D. None
13.He paid the boy ¥10 for washing ten windows,most of _____hadn't been cleaned for at least a year.(MET90)
  A.these    B. those     C. that     D. which
14.Kate and her sister went to holiday with a cousin of _____.(MET90)
  A.their    B. theirs     C. her     D. hers
15.I invited Tom and Ann to dinner,but _____of them came.(NMET91)
  A.neither   B. both     C. either     D. none
16.She heard a terrible noise,_____brought her heart into her mouth.(MET91)
  A.it    B. which    C. this     D. that
17.We couldn't eat in a restaurant because _____of us had _____money on us.(MET91)
  A.all; no   B. any; no    C. none; any    D. no one; any
18.These plants are watered _____.(NMET91)
  A.each other day  B. every other day   C. each of two days   D. every of two days
19.Alice received an invitation from her boss,_____came as a surprise.(NMET91)
  A.it    B. that     C. which    D. he
20.Does _____matter if he can't finish the job on time?
  A.this    B. that     C. he     D. it
21.Mr.Zhang gave the textbooks to all the pupils except _____who had already taken them.(MET92)
  A.the ones   B. ones     C. some     D. the others
22.There're so many kinds of tape-recorders on sale that I can't make up my mind _____to buy. (MET92)
  A.what    B. which    C. how     D. where
23.Although he's wealthy,he spends _____ on clothes.(NME792)
   A.little   B. few     C. a little    D. a few
24.In the dark street,there wasn't a single person _____ she could turn for help.(MET92)
   A.that    B. who     C. from whom   D. to whom
25._____he said at the meeting astonished everybody present.(MET93)
   A.What   B. That     C. The fact    D. The matter
26.---Would you like some wine?    ---Yes,just _____.(MET93)
   A.little    B.very little   C.a little    D.little bit
27.Tom's mother kept telling him that he should work harder,but _____didn't help.(MET93)
   A.he     B.which    C.she     D.it
28.---Is _____here?     ---No,Bob and Tim have asked for leave.(MET93)
   A.anybody   B.somebody   C.everybody   D.nobody
29.---Is your camera like Bill's and Ann's?  ---No,but it's almost the same as _____.(NMET94)
   A.her     B.yours    C.them    D.their
30.The weather turned out to be very good, _____was more than we could expect.(NMET94)
   A.what    B.which    C.that     D.it
31._____is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language.(NMET95)
   A.There    B.This     C.That     D.It
32.They were very tired,but _____of them would stop to take a rest.(NMET95)
   A.any    B.some    C.none    D.neither
33.I hope there are enough glasses for each guest to have _____.(NMET95)
   A.it     B.those    C.them    D.one
34.---When shall we meet again?  --Make it _____day you like; it's all the same to me.(NMET96)
   A.one    B.any     C.another    D.some
35.Tom felt that he knew everybody's business better than they knew it _____.(NMET96 )
   A.themselves  B.oneself    C.itself    D.himself
36.I agree with most of what you said,but I don't agree with _____.(NMET97)
   A.everything  B.anything   C.something   D.nothing
37.Sarah has read lots of stories by American writers,Now she would like to read_____stories by writers from _____ countries.(NMET97)
   A.some; any  B.other; some  C.some; other   D.other; other
38.It was about 600 years ago _____ the first clock with a face and an hour hand was made.(NMET97)
   A.that    B.until    C.before    D.when
39.I hate _____when people talk with their mouths full.(NMET98)
   A.it     B.that     C.these    D.them
40.Dr.Black comes from either Oxford or Cambridge.I can't remember _____.(NMET98)
   A.where    B.there    C.which    D.hat
41.Why do you want a new job _____you've got such a good one already? (NMET98)
   A.that    B.where    C.which    D.when
42.It was only when I reread his poems recently _____I began to appreciate their beauty.(NMET98)
   A.until    B.that     C.then     D.so
43.Few pleasures can equal _____of a cool drink on a hot day.(NMET99)
   A.some    B.any     C.that     D.those
44. If you want to change for a double--room you'll have to pay _____$15.(NMET2000 )
   A.another   B.other    C.more    D.each
45.---Why don't we take a little break?    ---Didn't we just have _____? (NMET2000)
   A.it     B.that     C.one     D.this
46.It is the ability to do the job _____matters not where you come from or what you are.(NMET2000 )
   A.one    B.that     C.what    D.it
47.If this dictionary is not yours,_____can it be? (NMET2001)
   A.what else  B.who else     C.which else's  D.who else's
48.Many people have helped with canned food,however,the food bank needs _____for the poor.(2001春招)
   A.more    B.much    C.many    D.most
49.The Parkers bought a new house but _____will need a lot of work before they can move in.(NMET2001)
   A.they    B.it     C.one     D. which
50.---He was nearly drowned once.(2002春招)  
   ---When was _____?
   ---_____was in 1998 when he was in middle school.
   A. that; it    B. this; this    C. this; it    D. that; this

语法复习十四:代  词
一、强化训练:
1. D 2. A 3. D 4. C 5. D 6. D 7. D 8. A 9. B 10. A 11. D 12. D 13. C 14. D 15. B 16. A 17. C 18. C 19. B 20. C21. B 22. C 23. B 24. D 25. A 26. B 27. A 28. C 29. A 30. D 31. A 32. A 33. B 34. B 35. D 36. A

二、高考题选:
1.A 这是一个强调句式的一般疑问句。
  2.D it是形式主语,to不定式是真正主语。
  3.C 参看2题。
  4.D family与先行词anyone之间是所属关系。
  5.C 在主语从句中,whoever充当主语,指代人,相当于anyone who。而C项who也可引导名词性从句,但它具体指"是谁"。
  6.A 特殊疑问句中的选择,用which。
  7.C 前一句只提到两个人。neither,either,both仅用于表述两者的情况,而any,all表述多者的情况,且I haven't seen either of them相当于I have seen neither of them。
  8.C 可参看2、3题。
  9.B all是先行词,that 引导定语从句,且all that=what。
  10.A His camera是句子的主语,也是信息词,应填名词性的物主代词hers,它相当于her camera。
  11.D it是形式宾语,to master…是真正宾语。此句还可说成I don't think it is possible to…。可参看2、3、8题。
  12.D A、B项不符合句意。C项no one后不接of短语。
  13.D which是定语从句中的关系代词,指代上文的windows。A、B、C项不能引导定语从句,且填进去后,两个分句缺少连词。
  14.B 可参看10题。
  15.A 前文提到邀请两个人,两个人都没来,故用neither参看7题。
  16.B which引导非限定性定语从句。which指代前面一句话。如果两个分句是由and连接,则A、C、D项也对。
  17.C A项中的all放在否定句中,是部分否定,与上文we couldn't eat in a restaurant矛盾,B项不符语法,n项no one后不接of短语,且只指代人。
  18.B every other day每隔一天,是习惯用法。
  19.C which在非限定性定语从句中指代前面一句话。可参看16题。
  20.D 考生非常熟悉It doesn't matter这一句型,该题现在是一般疑问句,it是matter的主语,if引导条件状语从句。
  21.A C、D项不能做定语从句的先行词来指代上文的the pupils,只能用the ones,因为它被限定性定语从句所修饰,表特指。该句的意思是:"张先生把教科书分给了所有的学生,那些已经拿走了的学生除外。"
  22.B 原题中的so many kinds of tape-recorders暗示考生要买的是录音机,故排除A项。因为有这么多种类,因此不能决定买哪个。C、D项是连接副词,不能做buy的宾语。
  23.A B、D项应排除,它们指代可数名词的复数。全句意为:"虽然他很富有,但很少花钱买衣服。"故C项不符句意。
  24.D turn at sb.for help是惯用法,在定语从句中把to提前与whom构成介词十关系代词。
  25.A 主语从句中缺少宾语,故what充当。
26.C 原题中的答语Yes暗示考生应选表示肯定意义的a little.A、B项表示否定意义。
  27.D it指代前面一句话。因有but,故前后为并列句,不用关系代词(which)只用代词it。
  28.C Is everybody here?"都到齐了吗",Is anybody here?"这里有人吗?"B项some body可用在表示征求对方意见,并希望得到对方肯定回答的问句里。D项不符原题句意。
  29.B 参看10、14题。
  30.B 参看16、19题。
  31.D it是形式主语,that从句是真正主语。如果fact前有the修饰,就可选B或C项,that引导同位语从句。
  32.C but是关键词,表转折,该句意为"他们非常疲劳,但没有一个人愿意停下来休息一会儿。"
  33.D one指代one of the glasses,且each一词是信息词。该句意思是:"我希望有足够的玻璃杯,以便每位客人有一个"。
  34.B one day表示"某一天",可用在一般过去时,当它用在将来时的句中时,可与some day互换。another day指另一天。原题中的It's all the same to me和you like是信息句,可暗示考生,只能选any day,即"你喜欢定在哪天都行,或随便哪一天都行。"
  35.A themselves;是they的反身代词。
  36.A 从上文"我同意你说的大部分,"可知,下文应填everything表示部分否定。B项填入后该句为全否定。C项不用在否定句中。D项填入后,该句成为肯定句。故B、C、D项是错误的。
  37.C 从上文"Sarah已经读了许多美国作家写的故事",可知,下文是"她现在想读一些由别的国家的作家写的故事"。A项中any用在肯定句中表示"任何一个",与后面的countries不符。B、D项不符原句的逻辑。
  38.A 这是一个强调句式。如果把It was…that去掉,该句子意思完整。不缺任何成份。
  39.A 该题考查it作形式宾语的用法。四个选项均为代词,只有it作先行代词时,本身没有具体意义,而只是帮助把真正的宾语移到后部去。句中it的作用是代替它后面的宾语从句when people talk with their mouths full,故正确答案为A。
  40.C 该题考查在省略的宾语从句中连接代词的用法。A、B项为副词,不可作及物动词remember的宾语,应先排除。指某一范围的"哪一个"需用连接代词which,前一个分句中的from either Oxford or Cambridge已限定了范围,故答案选C。
  41.D 该题考查引导从句的关系联词的用法。that和which作为关系代词引导定语句必须在从句中充当某一成份;where作关系副词引导定语从句在从句中作状语,先行词必须是表示地点的名词,故应排除A、B、C。由题于中从句与主句所表示的逻辑关系考虑,此空应填表示因果关系的从属连词when,这时when=since;for,意为"由于"、"既然",答案为D。
  42.B 该句考查强调结构。"It+be+被强调部分+that从句"是it的强调句型,如果强调的是时间、地点、原因等状语,别后面接that引导的从句,而不能用when,where,because等词来引导,因此答案为B。再如:
  It was when I was thirty--five that I got married and had a family.
  It was when we got to the station that it began to rain.参看1题。
  43.C 该题考查不定代词的替代用法。在进行比较时要用同类的事物相比,排除A、B。按照英语习惯用法,that可以代替一个单数名词或一个不可数名词,以避免重复前面提到过的名词。that前面没有任何修饰词,后面的介词主要是of。由空白后表示所属关系的语境可以确定此空应填that,代替pleasure,故答案选C。
  44.A another在此足不定代词,意为"再…个",pay to another $15。意为"再付15美元。more应放在$15之后。
  45.C one不定代词指代上文的break。
  46.B It is…that为强调结构。
  47.D 根据句意,"不是你的,可能是另外谁的呢?"所以答案是D。
  48.A 根据句意,"还再需要一些",故选A。
  49.B 代替the new house。

 

 

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