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新课标英语语法讲练十五:名 词  

2012-04-02 11:52:02|  分类: 【教学资料】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 新课标英语语法讲练十五:名  词

 

 (一)考纲要求
 名词应掌握以下内容:分清名词的可数性与不可数性;可数名词有单复数,有些名词只有复数;物质名词、抽象名词不可数但可以具体量化使用;名词所有格和of格的语言现象;名词直接作定语;国家名词的正确使用;名词词义的区分和搭配;单位名词的搭配;名词前的修饰语so, as, quite等;time及常考点。
 (二)命题导向
 名词的“可数”与“不可数”是高考命题的热点之一。不可数名词前不能与不定冠词连用,之后不能加-s。有些抽象名词却有复数形式,但意义与原来词不同。有些可数名词复数有两个意思,一个与单数意义相同,另一个和单数含义不同,高考中这些含义很可能成为考查的内容。词语的固定搭配及名词作定语也是高考命题的注意点。
 (三)知识概要
 英语的名词分为专有名词和普通名词两大类。专有名词是指个人、团体、地方、机构或事物等所专有的名称,它的第一个字母必须大写。如:Einstain, Beijing, Asia等。普通名词是指一类人、一类事物、某种物质抽象概念的名称,可分为:个体名词(可数,如:worker, father, book, tree, school等);集体名词(可数,如:people, family, class, team等);物质名词(不可数,如:iron, paper, snow, water, chalk, gold等);抽象名词(不可数,如:life, thought, idea, strength等)。
 注意:可数、不可数是英文名词和中文名词的一个重要差异——即学习的重点。而很多英语名词具有双重性。即,名词的类别不是固定不变的,它们会根据词义的变化和场合的不同而相互转换,其名词类别的转换可归纳如下:
 1、个体名词转抽象名词或抽象名词转个体名词
 e.g. Our school is not far from my home.(个体)我们学校离我家不远。
  School is over at six.(抽象)六点钟放学。
 2、物质名词转个体名词或个体名词转物质名词
 e.g. He broke a piece of glass.(物质)他打破了一块玻璃。
  He broke a glass.(个体)他打破了一个杯子。
 3、个体名词转专有名词
 e.g. His father is a teacher.(个体)他父亲是个教师。
  “What are you doing there?” Father asked.(专有)“你在那儿干什么?”父亲问道。
(四)名词的数
 名词分为可数(有单、复数形式)和不可数名词(只有单数形式)。
 1、可数名词单数变复数:
① 一般加s :lesson → lessons, pen → pens
② 以s, x, ss, ch, sh, o结尾的加es :buses, boxes, classes, watches, brushes, hero → heroes
但有些以o结尾的名词,是加s构成复数:kilo → kilos, piano → pianos, radio → radios,
photo → photos, zoo → zoos
③ 以辅音字母 + y 结尾的改y为i,再加es :city → cities, story → stories
④ 以f 或fe结尾的,一般将f或fe改为v,再加es :knife → knives, leaf → leaves
但有些以f 结尾的名词,是在f后加s,构成复数形式:belief → beliefs, roof → roofs, safe(保险箱)→ safes, proof(证据)→ proofs, chief → chiefs, handkerchief → handkerchiefs
2、有些名词,不按上述规则构成其复数形式,有以下几种情况:
① 单复数形式相同:Chinese, Japanese, deer, sheep
② 不规则变化:man → men, woman → women, goose → geese, foot → feet, tooth → teeth, child → children, mouse → mice, ox → oxen 。但是,German → Germans
③ 复合名词的复数形式:editor-in-chief → editors-in-chief, daughter-in-law → daughters-in-law, grown-up → grown-ups, woman teacher → women teachers, man driver → men drivers
3、注意以下几个名词单复数问题
① 物质名词一般不用复数形式,但有些物质名词要用复数形式来表示不同的类别,如:fishes各种鱼,fruits各种水果,steels各种钢材。
② 物质名词表示数量时,一般用表示数量的短语来表示。如:a cup of tea, three bags of apples, four pieces of bread。
③ 有些抽象名词的复数形式表示不同的含义。如:work(工作)→ works(著作),arm(手臂)→ arms(军火),glass(玻璃)→ glasses(眼镜),cloth(布)→ clothes(衣服)。
④ 定冠词加上姓氏的复数形式,表示全家人或夫妇二人;姓氏的复数形式前不加冠词,则表示若干个姓…的人。如:the Wangs王家,three Wangs三个姓王的。
⑤ 只用作单数的复数形式的名词。如:physics, mathematics, news, the United States
⑥ 有些名词形似单数,但实为复数。如:police, people, cattle
⑦ 有些名词如被看作整体时就作单数用,如被看作组成该集体的各个成员时就作复数用。如:class, family, couple, audience, government, public
⑧ 有些抽象名词在具体化时,可以复数形式出现。表示特指时,可和定冠词连用;表示“某种”或“一次”意义时,可和不定冠词连用。如:How did you smooth away the difficulties?(指各种具体困难);It is a great pleasure to talk with you.;What a surprise!
(五)名词的所有格
名词的所有格在句中表示所有关系,作定语用。
1、有生命名词的所有格一般在词尾加上“’”或“’s”。如:Tom’s bike, Engles’s (Engles’) works, a works’ school, Women’s Day, the editor-in-chief’s office
2、如果一个事物为两个人所有,只在后一个名词的词尾加“’s”,如果不是共有,就要在两个名词的词尾都加上“’s”。如:Tom and Mike’s room.(共有),Tom’s and Mike’s books.(不共有)。
3、表示时间、距离、国家、城市的无生命名词,可以在词尾加“’s”或“’”表示所有格,如:today’s papers, ten minutes’ walk
 4、表示店铺或某人的家时,常在名词所有格之后省去shop, house, home。如:the tailor’s
5、无生命名词的所在格通常用of短语来表示。如:the window of the room
6、表示有生命的名词有时也可用of短语来表示所有关系,而且当该名词带有较长的定语时。如:the teachers of the No. 1 Middle School.
7、双重所有格结构前的被修饰名词通常指整体中的部分或一个,双重所有格只能用于有生命的名词,这个名词是确定的。被修饰名词前有不定冠词、指示代词、疑问代词、不定代词或数词等限定词时,一般只能用双重所有格。如:an old friend of my uncle’s, a daughter of Mrs Green’s, the house of one of my friends
(六)名词的普通格作定语
材料、地点、用途、性质、泛指时间、整体等普通名词可以作定语,一般用单数形式。
e.g. stone figures(石像);paper money(纸币);country music(乡村音乐);table cloth(桌布);river bank(河岸);school gate(校门口);book stores(书店);traffic lights(交通灯);summer holidays(暑假);evening dress(晚礼服)。
但在个别情况下,也有需用复数的。
e.g. sports meet(运动会);the United States government(美国政府);students reading-room(学生阅览室);goods train(货车);two men doctors(两个男医生)。

练习、名词
1. The ____ of the room were covered with ____.
 A. roofs, leafs   B. roofs, leaves  C. rooves, leafs  D. rooves, leaves
2. There are three ____ in our factory.
 A. woman doctors  B. women doctors  C. woman doctor  D. women doctor
3. Which do you prefer ____ or ____?
 A. potatos, tomatos  B. potatos, tomatoes C. potatoes, tomatos D. potatoes, tomatoes
4. They are ____ of different presses(出版社). Now they are having a meeting in one of the ____ office.
 A. editor-in-chiefs, editors-in-chief’s   B. editors-in-chief, editor-in-chief’s
 C. editors-in-chiefs, editor’s-in-chief’s   D. editors-in-chief, editors-in-chief’s
5. The ant has two ____.  A. stomaches  B. stomacks  C. stomach  D. stomachs
6. He doesn’t like ____ for supper.   A. chick  B. chicken C. chickens D. chicks
7. It was ____ hot weather that many of us went swimming.
 A. so    B. such    C. so as    D. such a
8. ____ wonderful space they saw on the room!
 A. How    B. How a    C. What    D. What a
9. We know ____ travels not so fast as light.
 A. sound    B. sounds    C. the sounds   D. a sound
10. My family raise a lot of ____, including two ____.
 A. cattle, cows   B. cows, cattle   C. cattles, cows  D. cow, cattles
11. A number of soldiers ____ at he camp gate(军营门口).
 A. have gathered  B. has gathered  C. is     D. was
12. The Browns have spent a large ____ of money on their new car.
 A. deal    B. amount   C. number   D. size
13. ____ work has been done to improve the people’s living standard.
 A. Many    B. A great many  C. A great deal of  D. A number of
14. Mr Li shook ____ warmly with a friend.
 A. hand    B. a hand    C. hands    D. the hands
15. Two ____, please. A. coffee  B. coffees  C. cup of coffee  D. cups coffee
16. I can’t pay as ____ as he asked for.
 A. high price a   B. high price   C. a high price   D. high a price
17. ____ knowledge of space develops rapidly. A. Man’s  B. Men’s   C. Mens’ D. Person’s
18.I stayed at ____.  A. Xiao Wang’s B. Wang’s home  C. the Wangs   D. home of Wang
19. Sister Carrie works in a ____ factory.  A. shoes  B. shoses  C. shoe   D. shoe’s
20. Have you ever read ____?
 A. today newspaper  B. newspaper today  C. newspaper of today D. today’s newspaper
21. Two ____ walk didn’t made me tired. A. hour  B. hours  C. hour’s  D. hours’
22. The mother over there is ____ mother.
 A. Julia and Mary  B. Julia and Mary’s  C. Julia’s and Mary’s D. Julia’s and Mary
23. Li Ming’s handwriting is better than ____ in the class.
 A. anyone’s   B. anyone else   C. anyone’s else’s  D. anyone else’s
24. The children are playing ____ on the ____.
 A. sand, sand   B. sands, sands  C. sand, sands   D. sands, sand
25. If these trousers are too big, buy a smaller ____.  A. set B. one C. copy D. pair
26. Tom usually takes a ____ in bus on rainy days.  A. walk B. ride C. trip D. travel
27. We have no ____ about where she has gone.
 A. information   B. news    C. message   D. flash
28. Food and ____ are daily necessities(需要)for the people.
 A. cloth    B. clothe    C. clothes    D. clothing
29. My ____ of hearing is not so good as it used to be.  A. strength  B. sense  C. power D. skill
30. The ____ caused by carelessness ____ yesterday. Many workers were killed.
 A. incident, was happened     B. matter, happened  
C. event, was taken place     D. accident, took place
31. The room was so quiet that she could hear the ____ of her heart.
 A. beating   B. ways    C. knocking   D. striking
32. ____ has been told not to throw waste things anywhere.
 A. The public   B. People    C. Women   D. Man
33. He was an ____ in the government ____.
 A. office, official  B. official, office  C. officer, office  D. official, officer
34. There are several ____ in this novel who are different in ____.
 A. character, character B. characters, characters C. character, characters D. characters, character
35. We visited him ____ when he was in hospital.
 A. every other days  B. each other day  C. every other day  D. every two day
36. My friend will return in ____.
 A. one day or two  B. a day or two  C. one day or two  D. a or two days
37. ____ is always diffic ult for me.  
A. Translation   B. Translate   C. The translation  D. A translation
38. ____ of this novel is excellent, quite to my surprise.
 A. Translation   B. Translate   C. The translation  D. A translation
39. The police ____ looking into the matter now.  A. be B. is  C. are D. are going to
40. The Chinese are ____ brave and hard working people.  A. the  B. a  C. /  D. one
41. No news ____ good news.   A. is   B. are  C. have  D. has
42. Maths still ____ very difficult for me, though I have done my best.
 A. looks    B. seems    C. is     D. are
43. “Where ____ my trousers?” the boy asked.  A. is  B. was  C. were   D. are
44. How happy they are! Obviously, they are ____.
 A. in nice spirits  B. in nice spirit  C. in high spirits  D. in high spirit
45. I saw many ____ seated in the corner reading something.
 A. Japanese   B. Japaneses   C. of Japanese   D. of Japaneses
46. Father went to his doctor for ____ about his heart trouble.
 A. an advice   B. advice    C. advices   D. the advices
47. We are ____ and they are ____.     A. Englishmen, Germans  
B. Englishmen, German  C. Englishmans, Germans  D. Englishmen, Germen
48. ____ are made of ____.
 A. A glass, a glass  B. Glasses, glass  C. The glass, the glass D. Glasses, glasses
49. I’ll have to buy ____ trousers.   A. a  B. two  C. a pair of  D. a couple of
50. There are two ____ in our class.  A. Liu  B. Lius  C. Liu’s  D. Lius’
51. ____ is needed in cold countries.
 A. A lot of clothes  B. Much clothing  C. Many a cloth  D. Lots of clothes
52. They are ____.   A. mathematics student   B. mathematic students
      C. students in mathematics  D. mathematics students
53. The laboratory assistant recorded the ____ reactions(反应).
 A. mouses’   B. mice    C. mices’    D. mice’s
54. This letter was sent by ____.
A. my father friend  B. my father friend’s C. a friend of my father’s D. a friend of my father
55. Ten years had passed. I found she had ____. 
A. a little white hair B. some white hair  C. a few white hair  D. a few white hairs
56. I have made ____ with Billy.  A. friends  B. friend  C. a friend  D. the friend
57. The population of Beijing is ____ than that of Xi’an. A. more B. larger C. fewer D. small
58. There are thirty-two ____ in our school.
 A. woman teacher  B. women teacher  C. women teachers  D. woman teachers
59. He had tried everything but it made little______ .
  A. use     B. good     C. difference    D. result
60. You must get there within half an hour. There should be no______ in sending the blood to the dying man.
  A. wait     B. delay     C. time     D. hurry
61. Enough of it! Nobody here thinks what you are saying should make any______ .
  A. excuse    B. sense    C. use     D. value
62. -How dare you play on such thin ice?  -Playing on ice is not my ______of spare time.
  A. idea     B. thought     C. mind     D. intention
63. Helen said she would like to go to Atlanta by air, but I wonder if she has enough money to pay for the______ .
  A. travel     B. tourism     C. journey     D. course
64. One splendid mountain______ followed another during our journey from Mieheel more to Rurunz.
  A. view     B. glance     C. screen    D. scene
65.The new law will come into ___on the day it is passed. (1999上海)
  A. effect     B. use     C. service     D. existence
66. When you play' football, what ______do you play?
  A. situation    B. place    C. part     D. position
67. It's important for us to employ a word or a phrase according to the______in language studies.
  A. situation    B. expression    C. condition    D. translation
68. I wrote him a letter to show my ______of his thoughtfulness.
  A. achievement    B. agreement    C. view    D. appreciation
69. One of the advantages of living on the top floor of a high-rise is that you can get a good______ .
  A. sight     B. scene    C. view     D. look
70. Nowadays natural gas, wind and other forms of ______are widely used in the country.
  A. energy     B. force     C. power     D. materials
71. ______with foreign countries can bring us much information about the world.
  A. Contrast    B. Competition    C. Contact     D. Combination
72. We all know that______speak louder than words.
 A. movements    B. performances   C. operations   D. actions
73.We have worked out the plan and now we must put it into ___.(NMET1997 38)
  A. fact     B. reality     C. practice     D. deed
74.We've missed the last bus. I'm afraid we have no ____but to take a taxi.(Met 1993 ,33)
  A. way      B. choice     C. possibility     D. selection
75.He dropped the ___and broke it . (Met 1993, 38)
  A. cup of coffee    B. coffee's cup    C. cup for coffee   D. coffee cup
76.Here's my card. Let's keep in ____. (NMET1994 ,33)
  A. touch      B. relation    C. connection    D. friendship
77.He gained his ___by printing ___of famous writers.(NMET1995,40)
  A. wealth; work    B. wealths ; works   C. wealths; work   D. wealth; works
78.I'll look into the matter as soon as possible , just have a little ___.(MET 1996 ,10)
  A. wait      B. time      C. patience   D. rest
79.If by any chance someone comes to see me, ask them to leave a ____.(NMET1997,18)
  A. message     B. letter      C. sentence     D. notice
80.These football players had no strict ___until they joined our club. (1997.上海 20)
  A. practice     B. education     C. exercise     D. training
81.Many countries are increasing their use of natural gas, wind and other forms of ___.(1996.上海.15)
  A. energy     B. source     C. power     D. material
82.You'll find this map of great __in helping you to get round London.(NMET 1998 21)
  A. price      B. cost      C. value      D. usefulness
83.We all know that ___speak louder than words.(1999.上海 24)
  A. movements    B. performances   C. operations     D. actions
84.My parents always let me have my own ____of living. (1999.上海25)
  A. way      B. method    C. manner     D. fashion

 


语法复习十五:名  词
1~5 BBDDD  6~10 BBCAA  11~15 ABCCB  16~20 DAACD  21~25 DBDCD 
26~30 BADBD  31~35 AABDC  36~40 BACCB  41~45 ABDCA  46~50 BABCB 
51~55 BDDCD  56~60 ABCCB  61~65 BACAA  66~70 DADCA  71~75 CDCBD
76~80 ADCAD  81~84 ACDA

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