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新课标英语语法讲练十六:数 词  

2012-04-02 11:55:04|  分类: 【教学资料】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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金色阳光


金色阳光


 新课标英语语法讲练十六:数  词

 

高考重点要求:

1.掌握基数词、序数词、分数词、倍数、百分数、年月日、钟点、年龄、序号的基本用法。 2.掌握不定数量词、约数词的表达方法。数词在各个题项中,单选、阅读、听力、写作中发挥着很强的作用,往往用以说明事实的精确性和可信性。数词是由两大部分构成的即基数词和序数词,而其他数字表示法如分数,小数等均由这两大部分的不同组合而构成。 (一)基数词:表示数目的词为基数词,它的构成如下表:

范  围

特  点

实    例

1~12

无规律

 one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve

13~19

以teen为结尾

 thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen

20~90

以ty结尾

 twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, sixty, seventy, eighty, ninety

21~99

十位与个位之间要加连字符 “-”

 twenty-five, sixty-five, ninety-nine

101~999

百位与十位之间通常用and

 three hundred and twenty-five(美语中常将and省略)

千以上

 6275—six thousand two hundred and seventy-five;1200—twelve hundred


       (二)序数词:表示顺序的数词为序数词,它的构成如下表:

      

范  围

特  点

实    例

 

1~19

各基数词尾加th

其中七个例外:first, second, third, fifth, eighth, ninth, twelfth, 其余,如:four — forth, six — sixth, nineteen — nineteenth  

20,30~90

把y变i后加eth

 twentieth, fortieth, ninetieth  

21以后多位数

最后一个数用序数词,其余用基数词

 21st — twenty-first, 110th — one hundred and tenth  
 

(三)数词的用法:
1.英语中年月日、点钟、序数词、分数词、算式列表 示例

英语表示法

2001.6.30 June 30,2001  30June,2001  30thJune, 2001
7:25 seven twenty-five  twenty-five past even
12:54 twelve fifty four  six to one
9:15 nine fifteen  a quarter past nine
2:30 two thirty  half past two
21:50 twenty-one fifty  9:50p.m.
第21 twenty-first
第123 one hundred and twenty-third
a half
two and two-fifths
20% 20 per cent  20 percent
第七路公共汽车 Bus Number Seven
第201房间 Room 201
人民路153号 153 Renmin Road
4+8 =12 Four plus eight is twelve
11-7=4 Eleven minus seven is four.
6×5=30 Six times five is thirty.
20÷5=4 twenty divided by five is four.
A>B A is more than B.
A<B A is less than B.
A≈B A is approximately (近似地, 大约)equals to B.
A≠B A is not equal to B.


2.约数表示法列表


含义

英语表达

例句

大于某数 more than He has lived here for more than twenty years.
over she is over fifty.
or more There're thirty people or more in the meeting-room.
小于某数 less than I have less than (not more than )fifty dollars.
under Children under seven are not allowed to enter.
below He would not sell it for below a hundred fifty dollars.
or less The coat might cost him sixty dollars or less.
大约(某数) nearly She is nearly fifty now.
almost Its almost three o'clock.
up to Up to ten men can sleep in this tent.
or He spent four or five days writing the article.
or so The distance is twenty miles or so.
about I visited that village about three years ago.
some Their team has some four or five players.
more or less The container can hold more or less twenty pounds of water.
around/round Let's make it round/around eight o'clock.


3.不定数量词“多”的表示法列表


被修饰名词的数

英语表达

汉译

修饰可数名词 dozens of 几十、许多
scores of 许多
many, a good(great) many, many a (饰单数可数名词) 许多、大量
hundreds of 数以百计
thousands of ,thousands upon thousands of 成千上万
millions of 数百万
billions of 亿万
修饰不可数名词 much , a great (good)deal of , a large amount of ,large amounts of 许多、大量
修饰可数名词或不可数名词 a lot of /lots of ,plenty of,   a large quantity of , large quantities of 许多、大量


练习、数  词 1. Two __died of cold last winter. A. hundreds old people                       B. hundred old people    C. hundreds old peoples                     D. hundred old peoples
2. He was only in__ at the time. A. his 20's            B. the 20's             C. his twenties      D. the twenties
3. The two great men wrote those letters in__ .
  A. 1870's              B. 1879s               C. the 1870's         D. the 1870
4. I wonder if I can ask him__ time.
  A. four                   B. fourth               C. the fourth         D. a fourth
5. He came out__ in the track events.
  A. first                   B. one                  C. the first            D. the one
6. It was in 1939 that __broke out.
  A. World War Second     B. the World War Second  C. Second World War    D. World War II
7. You'll have to spend __writing your report here.
  A. one day or two days   B. one day or two           C. a day or two         D. two days or one
8. He cut the cake__ .
  A. in halves             B. in half               C. into halves        D. into half
9. The earth is nearly__ the moon.
  A. 50 time the size of      B. 50 times the size of    C. 50 times as size as D. 50 times as that of
10. Either you or the headmaster __the prizes for these gifted students at the meeting.
  A. is handing in       B. are to hand out     C. are handing in            D. is to hand out
11. __of the population here are peasants.
  A. 20 percents               B. 20 percent         C. the 20 percent   D. the 20 percents
12. It's about__ , the thickness of a human hair.
  A. two-fifteenth      B. two-fifteenths   C. two fifteen        D. two fifteens
13. The price of such material was reduced__ .
  A. by 18 percent     B. to 18 percent     C. at 18 percent     D. for 18 percent
14. South of the equator, 81 percent of the surface of the earth__ water.
  A. is                       B. are                   C. was                 D. were
15. They sold __boxes of such sweets last week.
  A. four dozen          B. four dozens       C. four dozens of D. four dozen of
16. It took me __ days to finish drawing a beautiful horse.
  A. a half dozen        B. half a dozen      C. haft dozens       D. half dozen
17.__people were sent there to help fight against the flood.
  A. Three scores of B. Three score of C. Three score      D. Three scores
18. Don't leave you work,__ .
  A. done half            B. half done          C. a half done        D. done a half
19. Nobody can do two things well __ .
  A. at one time         B. at once             C. one time           D. once
20. He has__ books in his study.
  A. several thousands       B. some thousands of    C. some thousands      D. some thousand of 21. On National day__ people take part in all kinds of celebration.
  A. hundreds of millions of                B. millions of hundred of
  C. hundreds millions of                        D. millions hundreds of
22. He has lived at__ for 30 years.
  A. No. 101 Heping Street B. 101 Heping Street   C. Heping Street 101  D. Heping street No. 101
23. You can find him in__ .
  A. Room 201      B.201 Room     C. the Room 20  D. the 201 Room
24. It's__ walk from here to my school.
  A. two - hours    B. two hours     C. two - hour    D. a two - hour
25. It was in__ when he was already in ___ that he went to Yan'an.
  A. the 1940s, the 40s B. the 1940s, his forties    C. 1940's, his forties         D. the 1940's, his 40s
26. He went to the market and bought __eggs and some meat.
  A. three dozen of     B. three dozen        C. three dozens   D. three dozens of 27.Shortly after the accident two ___police were sent to the spot to keep order.
  A. dozen of           B. dozens            C. dozen            D. dozens of (MET92 29)
28.Mr Smith ___me to buy several __eggs for the dinner.
   A. asked, dozen    B. suggested, dozens of         C. had, dozen  D. persuaded, dozens of ('94上海)
29.____of the land in that district ___covered with trees and grass.
  A. Two fifth, is       B. Two fifth, are    C. Two fifths , is  D. Two fifths, are (2000上海)
30.Two ___died of cold last winter.
    A. hundreds old people                    B. hundred old people    C. hundred old peoples                     D. hundred old peoples ('88MET.15)
31.It is not rare in ___that people in ____fifties are going to university for further education.
  A.90s,the            B. the 90s, /     C.90s, their        D. the 90s, their ('99上海 6)
32.-Have you seen many sheep in the distance ?           -Yes, ___.
  A. thousand of them                         B. two thousands of them    
  C. two thousand of them                 D. two thousand them

语法复习十六:数  词

1.B
2. C 表示"几十"的数字的复数与所有格代词一起来用以表示人的年龄,本句为"二十多岁"。
3.C 定冠词"the"和数的复数形式在一起表示年代。
4.D 序数词前面加不定冠词表示"又一次"(已经四次了)
5.A 这里"first"有人说起副词作用,可以看成表语,也可以看做一种"取得第一名"的习惯用法。
6.D 序数词和名词共同构成的专有名词还可以是thc Second World War的形式。
7.C 只有C项为正确的表达方式,或者也可以写成"one or two days".再如:one hour and a half或one and a half hours.
8.B "in half"表示"分成一样大小的两半"。也可以说"cut…in two"
9.B 再如twice the height(depth,width,weight,etc.)of
10.D either…or…连接主语用就近原则。be to hand out the prizes意为"要颁发奖品"。
11.答案为B。百分比作修饰语,前面不加冠词且不能加复数。
12.答案为B。分数做定语,分子用基数词,分母为序数词,当分子大于1时,分母用复数,本题中,其它表达方式均不正确。
13.答案为A。表增加或减少的数量的百分比,用by+百分数表示。
14.答案为A。不可数的名词的百分比用单数;可数名词的百分比则用复数。C项时态不对,另如:90 percent of the population here are peasents.这个句子中population的意思是people.
15.答案为A。"dozen"与数词或many,several等词连用时复数一般不加s,故B、C两项不选。此外,dozen与数词连用做定语,一般也不加of.当然也有例外:Place them in dozens on the table.dozens表数量很多。Two dozen of these are wanted.dozen后面有of因为有限定词these,the等。Dozens of people were here.dozens of也表示"很多"。
16.答案为B。"半打"的表达方式一定要用"hall a dozen"。
17.答案为B。score做定语修饰名词用a(three)score of,而不用复数形式;常用"scores of"为其复数形式,意为"大量",但有:three score and ten,a score or more
18.答案为B。"hall"起副词作用,修饰过去分词"done",因为这个过去分词表状态,故"half"应在"done"前。再如:well done,well known,不用a half修饰done,故不选C、B两项。
19.B意为"同时",不是"立刻"。
20.B
2l.A 如:tens of thousands of(小数在前,大数在后)thousands and thonsands of(两数一样大)。
22.B 居住的门牌号用介词at+号数+街道名"。
23.A
24.答案为D。"walk"作为名词,常与不定冠词连用。注意:在表数量的合成词中,名词部分为单数,如:a two-year-old boy.
25.答案为B。"在20世纪40年代",必须有定冠词"the".此外,年代后要加's或s。"他已经40多岁了"要用in his forties。
26.答案为B。dozen与数词或多或少several, many连用时,复数不加s。dozens of表示数量很多,在修饰有these,the等词限定的名词时,可用dozen of的形式。如:three dozen of these eggs.

27.C  28.A  29.C  30.B  31.D  32.C  

 

 

 

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